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Word   Meaning
-a SEQuence: and then IMMediacy: next TEMPoral
-a IMPerative, Command form
-an BASE
-an BASE
-ana PAST2
anyanyListencute, gorgeous
aŋba'ListenAnindilyakwa, Groote Eylandt people
apati White person
apatj half past
apkatjListenpart Aboriginal, half-caste
-ara PAST1
bäba gum nut--edible 1
bäba' wasp gall on Bloodwood--edible
baba'yunListenmake a mistake behave stupidly go astray
babalaListenaccidentally at random
baḏagulu' tree--large, wood used to make didgeridoos Rough-Barked Bloodwood (?)
baḏakListenstill, yet, while, not yet finished
baḏakawk bird Jungle-Fowl
baḏalaŋ food
baḏaltja tortoise Emydura victoriae
baḏamaListenshellfish--edible , Giant Gem Chiton, Acanthopleura gemmata, Physsoplax kuradai
baḏapirri back and forth, just hanging around, unreliable, not working in one place for long
baḏarrListentree--from which canoes are made , Paperbark(s) (generic): White Tree, Punk Tree, Cajuput Tree, Melaleuca cajuputi
baḏarratjtjun feel twinge of pain in injured spot
baḏatharr lizard large Rock Goanna, Varanus glebopalma
baḏatjtjunListenmiss (as when throwing a spear), make a mistake (e.g., play a wrong note) be unable to do fail, fall short (of) disobey
baḏaw'yunListenburst, explode
baḏawiliListentree/shrub Rough-barked Gum, Rusty Bloodwood, Eucalyptus feruginea Broom Berry, Randia cochinchinensis
baḏay tree Banyan, Ficus virens
bäḏay vine/creeper--used as string has black fruit when ripe, can be eaten cooked when still red Burney Vine, Malaisia soandens
baḏayala(')Listenlight (generic, as from sun, moon, torch)
baḏikanListenbird Sulphur-crested Cockatoo, Cacatua galerita
baḏipaḏi wallaby Rock Wallaby
baḏubaḏuyunListenerase, rub out, eradicate use up spoil, waste
baḏurruListenMilky Way mist, fog
baḏuwaḏuyunListenerase, rub out, eradicate use up spoil make a mess of waste (money) cause any former state to exist no longer
bädju'-badjuListenshirt, coat, jacket
bagapaga bird Pied Heron
bagapagayunListenwalk as though drunk, stagger
bägay south
bagitj tide--high/full
bäguru headband--of string
bakListenbreak (off)
baka(') spear--with two hooked wooden prongs or barbs down one side
bäkaListenleg--lower, shin bone, calf tail handle
bäkala(')Listenharpoon head--with hook on one side (for hunting whales, dugong, turtle)
bakarra(') turtle Long-Necked Freshwater Tortoise, Chelodina rugosa
bakarrama spear--wooden
bakatjarri smoke
bäkiListenuse, try out, borrow (and then return)
bakiki' digging wire (piece of wire or steel used for digging)
bakirrikirriListenspear--shovel-nosed (now made with steel, used to have a wooden head) blade (only?)
bakit bucket, pail
bakitju boulder
bakparrListenscar patch (on clothing)
bakpiḏiḏi frog Northern Dwarf Tree Frog, Litoria bicolor
bakpirr(')Listenfrog--brownish "Ground Frog"
baku(') vine Lawyer Vine, Flagellaria indica armlets made from this vine
bäkubaku string--non-traditional
bäkumirriyamaListenmeasure, weigh, estimate use something for oneself that was originally set aside for someone else
bäkul stingray--edible Stingaree, Brown Stingray (?)
bakuŋ-bakuŋ frog--large, lives in grass or hollow trees
bakuruma look up(wards)
bakurra robber
bal'yun pound
baḻ'yunListenbeg, ask for, cadge, "bludge"
baḻ'yun hide, go into hiding
bäl firewood
-bal(a) Directional, used on demonstratives and some directionals
balaListenand, then new orientation in discourse
bala away, that way, thither direction away from speaker
bala side
bala'Listenhouse, building (non-Aboriginal design)
bala' iron, metal
bälaListencharacteristic gait, length or type of stride wake, track (of fish in the sea) footprints, trail (left on ground) flipper (of fish) favourite place (of dreamtime spirits or of fish), "hangout"
balaḏay tree/shrub creeper used to make string
baladharrdharr' fish--freshwater
balaka temporary, makeshift, ad hoc share, portion (of food)
baḻaka'yun scatter, spread (a message)
balakarra arm bands for stone axe
balakirriŋ' that kind of thing
bälakuli smoke (so dense that you cannot see through it)
baḻaḻ'yun go down veer off, change direction
balali wind--strong, west
balam that (one), there (near us)
baḻambirr(')pirryun sit cross-legged (or with legs stretched out ?)
baḻamin gait, attitude of body while walking resemblance, recognition of a person (at a distance or in the face of child)
balamurru' spear--with hooks on both sides
balandaListenWhite person, European
balaṉḏi'Listenrope--thick (used for sails of canoe), thick fishing line (European type)
balanu forever, for good
balanhanListentread on thresh, grind
balanyaListenlike this, thus
balanydjaListenrevenge, payback
balaŋListenmight, could, should (have) Adversative
baḻaŋaw'yun smother, overwhelm, cover, surround
balaŋgitListenblanket rug
balaŋu might, could, should (have) Adversative
bala-ŋuthanayŋu young (person) new fresh (plant)
baḻapthunListenbend down (to drink water from a pond), bend over (face to ground), crouch
bala'palaListenconstruction of wood--with flat top chair, table, bush-shelter, platform, wharf
balarr shellfish--found in stony places Yellow Baler Shell, Melo amphora
balarr fly March Fly
baḻarra(') tree--and its bark or edible gum Wattle, Acacia torulosa bark pubic shield or tassel
baḻarraListenflesh from breast of turtle
balarrk shellfish Yellow Baler Shell
baḻarrkpaḻarrkListenlong (fish, e.g., Barramundi), tall (person), great (hunger), old (language)
baḻarrwaḻarr area with trees along river (which is flooded in the Wet)
bäḻatha(')Listenstick (heavy piece of wood--used for head-hitting, wife beating, turtle-hunting, or held while dancing)
baḻatjListenstick (used for turtle hunting or fighting)
bälatj bridge
bälawala watering hole for emus
baḻawaḻŋ'thunListendamaged--be peel (off)
baḻawurrwurr boat--big, barge, cargo ship
-balay Dual
balayListenthey Dual
bälay'Listenaway, gone away
baḻaya painting--head, with straight lines dwelling place of Red Kangaroo
baḻayarr fish Long-Tailed Catfish Eel, Euristhmus lepturus
baḻayin Cycad bread--small (long, thin) loaf made from cycad nuts
balaykara to(wards) them Dual
balaykuru from them Dual
balaykuruma their(s), for them Dual
balbalyun be in balance (of a person crossing a river on a tree trunk, walking across a log-bridge, of a goanna running up a tree, etc.)
baḻbaḻyun wade in water (about knee deep)
bäḻbalyun bend over
balbaw'marama split down the middle
baldhurr' footprint mark made on ground and stamped with foot as a sign to people following
balga-balga shark Hammerhead
baḻgapthun crouch, be bent over
baḻgurr shrub, fruit--edible Kurrajong
baḻgurrŋiniŋ snake--found in Kurrajong tree
bälim'bun boil
balinListenfish Barramundi (generic), Lates calcarifer
baḻirrpaḻirrListenspirit man
balkmarama take away
balkaḻ root of water lily (Nymphaea sp)--found in deep water billabongs
balkatj backbone
bälkay urine
balkiny bitter, sharp-tasting
balkitj male kangaroo, bandicoot, e.g., male Agile Wallaby, Macropus agilis
baḻkpaḻkListentree, fruit--almond-shaped, yellow, ripe around September, edible black nut (in red shell) good wood for firesticks inner bark used as a medicine for aching ears or inflamed eyes, it is scraped and mixed with breast milk or fresh water Red-Fruited Kurraj
baḻkpaḻkŋani(ŋ) shark--not eaten Black-Tip Shark, "Tiger Shark", Carcharhinus spallazani
balku string (made by rubbing), rope
balkuwarra' hills, undulating country (any grassy area at foot of hills--with plenty of food)
balma tree/shrub White Paperbark, Melaleuca leucadendron
baḻman rain
balmaṉ' tree--with edible plums and gum useful sap Terminalia carpentariae
balmaṉa hat
balmarrk pubic hair--male
baḻmarrk wind--northwest
bäḻmawuy dying language
balmbi clan-nation (Djinang, nearly extinct)
balnhanak balance (as of load on canoe) Ext scale(s)
balnhdhurr'yun plan (ahead, beforehand), mark out (with food on ground as a sign for people to follow) show disapproval (by scraping foot on ground as an angry animal)
baḻŋunda yam--long, can be eaten raw or cooked
balŋurrurru cicada
balpa(') fish Rock Cod
balpaḏaŋan tree--edible fruit and sap Wild Peach, Red Cement Tree
balpalyun make fire
baḻpaḻyun rub sticks together to make fire run up a tree (goanna)
baḻ'paḻyun pound (cycad nuts)
baḻ'paḻyun bend over
baḻpaḻ' palm--large cycad Burrawong, Cycas sp.
balpara companion (for protection), mate, helper
balpuḏu spear
baltha shade tree cloud
baltharr(') leg branch, forked stick Ext ladder
baltjam'thun light a fire, prepare wood for a fire
bäḻtji yam--long Vigna radiata Dioscorea sativa var. elongata
baltjuḏa lizard Frilled Lizard, Chlamydosaurus kingii
baluka thief, robber
baḻuḻupaḻuḻu stingray--edible
baluny'tjurr tree/shrub and its edible fruit cf See: BAMARAŊ
baluŋa pillow
balupalu stick--fighting, truncheon
balwak leg--lower tail end part of firestick, piece of smouldering wood (for lighting fire)
balwalyun walk in balance (as when walking across a tree trunk or log)
baḻwaḻyun wade through water (about knee deep)
baḻwapthun crouch
balwur ripe cooked, "done"
balwuruŋaniŋ tree--shade, with white flowers
baḻwurr tree/shrub--with edible seeds "Burrajong", Red-Flowering Kurrajong, Darwin Kurrajong, Brachychiton paradox is,um
baḻwurr string--strong (brownish/off white--from roots of BALWURR tree?)
balyurr' kick marks made with foot
baman' long ago, long time, once upon a time
bämara(') companion, friend, helper, mate
bamaraŋ tree/shrub and its edible fruit Big Green Plum, Planchonella pohlman n ia na
bambalaman turtle--young
bambaŋa(') fish Red Emperor, Lutjanus sebae Paddle Tail, L. gibbus Scarlet Sea-Perch, L. malabaricus etc.
bambark-bambark ant--black and silver, Polyrachis sp native cockroach (?)
bambay blind
bambay mother sister
bämbi stingray--edible has flat nose and spots or blotches on skin Long-tailed Ray, Himantura uarnak Brown Stingray, Dasyatis fluviorum
bambiḻigat canvass, calico Ext house, dwelling
bambitj tree (generic for trees with large trunks) Ext wood, lumber
bämbitj grass--sucked for its sweet liquid Heteropogon sp.
bämbu' shrub
bambula ceremonial ground
bambulk plant--with large edible root Amorphophallus variabilis (?)
bambum'bun knock, bump into
bambuma know not, be ignorant (of), lose track
bamburuŋburuŋ brain
bamdjirrbi' kangaroo, euro--female
bamdjurrbi kangaroo juvenile male Antilopine Wallaroo, Macropus antilopines
bam'pala sandhill--high, sandbank, sandbar, inland or coastal dune(s)
bamuḻa calm, motionless
bämuŋ no understanding
bamutuka(') pipe--long, wooden
baṉa' branch, forked stick (for holding up roof, etc.)
bäna Nevermind!, Leave it!, It's good enough! Still..., until, even though
banakaListenbranch(es) for making a bush-shelter
banambi net
baṉami bird--crane Brolga, Grus rubincundus
baṉaṉakListenshrub--with yellow and mauve flowers, small needle-like leaves Calytrix microphylia, -exstipulata
banaŋ(')Listenwool, thread(s), yarn
banaŋ' fish Puffer Fish (generic), e.g: Boxfish, Ostracion spp Toado, Arothron spp Toby, Canthigaster spp. "Porcupine Fish"
banapana harpoon
baṉarr' tree Marble Tree, Owenia vernicosa (not Petalostigma pubescens)
baṉarraListenclearing, open country clean, neat and tidy, clear, open (place)
baṉbalarri flower--white (found on long yam sp.)
baṉbalŋu snake Death Adder
banbanListenspear-thrower--flat (for fighting spears)
baṉbaŋa fish Long-Finned Garfish, Euleptorhamphus viridus
banbiṉawuyListenlizard Frilled-Neck
banbuḻarra cloverlike flower Gomphrena sp.
baṉḏaListenstone, rock
baṉḏak woomera--straight
baṉḏamirr turtle juvenile Flatback Turtle
baṉḏany(')Listendry, arid, waterless shallow thick clear true
bändarra giddy--be or feel tear and burn up clothes (to show one's anger)
bandarr(')miny honey--wild
bandayama' lightning
bandayama' lizard gecko--associated with lightning in myths
bändayŋaListenTorres Straits
bändilListenwood, timber
bandirra(')Listenflag (to indicate a death or ceremony for Yirritja groups)
bandirraŋ flagpole
bandirritjpal crocodile--saltwater
baṉḏulk-baṉḏulk shrub Whrightia saligna
baṉḏulu stick--walking
baṉḏumulListensurname mangrove tree (with mangrove worms) and its wood
bandurr'yun kick cadge
bändurruŋ stingray--harmless, not generally eaten by Yolŋu Common Shovel-Nosed Ray, Rhynobatus batillum Bougainville's Shovel-Nosed Ray, Aptychotrema bougainvillii White-Spotted Shovel-Nosed Ray, Rhynchobatus djiddensis
bandhamarra yam
baṉdjaListenarm, branch (of tree) Ext small creek, brook
bandjikthirri act the fool, show off (as when drunk)
baṉdjirri stingray--edible
baṉdjurr tree--black, in mangrove with thin long green seed-pods and yellow perfumed flowers
bäṉgalam bring
baṉgalkal rocky outcrops (at beach), flat rocky area
baṉgapuma make jump (?) put into a basket (?) break open shellfish and take out the flesh (?)
baṉgarrirribunuma make jump
baṉgitj bee--and its honey (sugarbag), gathered from near the ground
banguṉa lizard--large Gould's Goanna, Varanus gouldii
bangurtja shark--large, man-eating sp. generic for adult sharks
bangutja shark--large, dangerous
baṉi tree--used in boat building and for shelters Red Ash, Soap Tree
bäniListenfloat, be in, on, or of water
bäni father, uncle FB
banikin(')Listentin, cup, billycan, cooking pot
baniniŋu specific to a place, original
ban'karinya root food
baṉŋal'marama sail, put up mast, put up the sail
baṉ'pal belt made of balgurr (used when climbing smooth/slippery tree)
bänu left aside, abandoned, rejected
banumal stick--for digging
baṉumbirrListenmorning star, Venus ant-lion larva starfish
banuminyListenflower (grows near beach)
banhaListenthat, there, yonder (far, out of sight)
banhalListenby/at that (one) yonder
banhambalListento that (one, far)
banhanyListenthat person yonder object of verb
banhaŋuyaListenusing that
bänhdharra deep sea, open sea, ocean
banybuḻ star--morning, Venus
banydjaya behind (in position)
banydji still in the same place, close by
banydji clouds--evening
banydjiya behind (in position)
banydjurrma wind--north(erly)
banyguḻListenmorning star, Venus
banyiki flying fox Little Red Fruit Bat, Pteropus scapulatus
baŋdhun spread legs apart (sitting or lying)
bäŋListentrunk of Cycad Palm
baŋam rock, stone
baŋanhdharrayarr shellfish--edible Pinctada chemnitzii, P. maxima, P. sugillate
baŋbaḻaŋ brain
baŋgaḻaŋ brain
baŋgana flag
baŋgatha rootfood
baŋgina foot, feet, toe(s) footprint
baŋgipuListenwood, timber
bäŋgu bark of mangrove tree--boiled in brine, used as dye (red/black) for baskets or bags
baŋguḻ'yun return
baŋiḏi mälk-m
baŋiḏidjan' subsection-f
baŋiṉ mälk-f
baŋu that (one), here (near us)
baŋuwal here, this way, hither
bap put (down)
bäpaListenfather, uncle FB Ext minister, priest, reverend
bä'paliListenmedicine wooden dish
bäpaŋListenplank, timber, log (such as washed up on beach) Ext blackboard Oak tree--used to be washed ashore along with bits of wire and used for making tomahawk side scales of turtle
bäpiListensnake, legless lizard (generic)
bäpurru group--ethnic, clan-nation, tribe, organisation Ext a death (in the family)
bapuy'yunListentoss (about) float on waves, have a bumpy ride plunge (up and down)
bar whip, flog, beat, hit, slap
barthun split (open)
bär' thin
bara groin
baragarr' tree River Whistling Tree, Casuarina cunninghamiana
baralaListensandbank, sandhill--high, sandbar (area of rise and fall of tide) dune(s)
baralatj sandbar
baralŋi wade
baraŋgurr shin-bone (especially of wallaby or other animal--used as a blade)
bararrpu(nu)ma graze (the skin)
bararrpararr clan-nation
barawiyal egg(s)--freshly laid
barawun(') ray, beam (of light), moonbeam rays of sunlight just before sunrise
barawuṯi short cut, short crossing
barik white, bright, light (coloured)
baritj white, bright, light (coloured)
baritjarr fish Freshwater Catfish, Tandanus tandanus
barkthunListencrack Ext crack of dawn, break of day
barkaListenthin (thing), skinny (person or animal)
barkaListenarm--upper armlet branch Ext creek
barkiki(') bird Straw-necked Ibis, Threskiornis spinicollis
barkparkthunListensing (with clapsticks)
barkthu tomorrow
barkuma(') cat--native possum Northern Quoll, Dasyurus hallucatus hallucatus
barmurrk cucumber--wild Cucumis melo
barŋ hot stones--for heating water (by placing in water) antbed (used for cooking) (?) Ext altar (in sacrificial sense)
barŋgitjListenbee--its hive may be found in the base of a tree, a tree stump, or the ground Trigona sp. sugarbag, wild honey (of this bee)
barpa' rotten, rancid
bar'parmarama chase away, (cause to) scatter
barpuma pound (with a stone or similar object)
barpuruListenyesterday, some time ago (any definite recent day)
bartjarr fish--small Freshwater Eel-tailed Catfish, Neosilurus sp.
bartjunmaram(a) slap, smack, whip, flog, beat, hit
baru many, lots (of)
bäruListencrocodile (generic) Salt-water Crocodile, Crocodylus porosus
barukaŋu tree/shrub--with small white flowers edible fruit--long orange pod, ripe in Mayaltha season
barun brighten, become white or bright
baruruparuru stingray--edible
barwarra shellfish--edible, but must be cooked dwelling of Hermit Crab Mud Welk, Terebralia p e,a lustris
barryun open (Rit) split
barr'yunListentear, rip (open), split, slice
bärrListenscar (from a burn), cicatrice, axe mark (on tree)
barra Plural
bärra good fishing spot (near rocks)
bärra'Listenwest, northwest (wind--used to sail from Celebes to Australia, blows before the Wet)
barraḏuka' crocodile--saltwater
barrakaḻ' shrub--used to make spear shafts
barrakala bone on lower leg
barrakinyListenbad, no good
barral wasp--yellow & red striped body builds large nest hanging on outside of trees
barralk tree--with long flower spikes Wattle, Acacia sp.
barrambarra cloth(ing), clothes
barrambuwa White Woman, Asian lady, non-Aboriginal woman
barrandji' possum
barranguwa tree/plant Leea bruneniana
bärraŋListenknife--large, meat cleaver, machete, cane-knife
barraŋga'yun mock, mimick (actions) thank someone repeatedly "applaud" (answer an orator by calling out in appreciation or agreement) warn or correct someone, teach, instruct
barraŋgal wallaby Agile Wallaby, Sandy Wallaby, Macropus agilis (joey), ŋarrku, weti
barraŋgay'yun wander off
barraŋgunha stingray--edible Cowtail Ray, Fantail Ray, Dasyatis sephen Stingaree, Urolophus testaceus
barraŋiny side (everything relating to a person or thing)
barrapa fresh (water)
barrapirri(') fish--green, not eaten
barrapuwa White Woman, Asian lady, non-Aboriginal woman
barrara crow bar, steel/iron rod flattened or sharpened at both ends and used as a digging stick
barrari fear
barrarritja fish
barrawaŋ-barrawaŋdhun stagger
barrawuListenboat, Macassan "prau"
barray'parray near the surface, lightly
barrdjaḻ'yun slide, slip (over)
bärri maybe, perhaps
bärrinyinŋa stingray (generic)
barrir'-barrir bird Rainbow Bird
barrka(') stingray--edible Green Sawfish, Pristis zijsron
barrkan' root--edible Marsdenia sp., Cynanchum sp. (?)
bärrkarr penetrating, spreading far and wide
barrkimirri married Ext "your husband's homeland"
barrkparrkpunuma unfold, open (out), spread (out)
barrkuListenfar (away, off), distant, long (distance)
bärrkuListenfar (away, off), distant
barrkula beach
barrkuwatjListenseparate, different each judge (one who judges and divides)
bärrkwaḻ different, separate
barrma'yun sit/lie with legs apart
barrminy wind--strong
barrŋbarrŋ holey
barrŋgil feet turned out when walking (correct way for men)
barrŋguḻ reed--freshwater, with orange flowers not eaten Frogsmouth, Woolly Waterlily, Phylidrum laniginosum
barrŋiryun be noisy (ear-splitting)
barrpaListenpus, discharge--unhealthy
barrpa(')Listenrotten, putrid, smelly, stinking bad, stale, off (food, especially meat) maggot
barrpa'Listensis! (term used by brother to address sister)
barrtjarayListentree--found at the edges of billabongs Paperbark, Melaleuca leucadendron
barrtjunListenspear, attack with spears Pl sew
barrukalListentree Paperbark (generic)
barrukala(')Listenbark of Paperbark tree--used to make containers, shelters, canoes, death shroud, for cooking and bark paintings
barrulanhayŋu spirit man who lives in a cave (has hooked shoulders catches people) the cave he lives in (?)
barrupuListentobacco--old, black, strong Ext cigarette
barrwaṉ(') skin, peeling (of bush food) bark (egg)shell Ext paper money, dollar note(s)
barrwaŋdhunListenfall (down, over), trip
barrwarryunListenkeep on laughing, crying, kicking (e.g., like a temper tantrum)
barryaḻ'yun slip (over, as feet slipping from under on a path)
batListenthrow (away)
baṯListenlight a fire, make a fire
baṯ get, pick up, touch, hold (tightly or firmly), have, reach (for), grab, seize
bata'yun race (to outrun), go very quickly, run (to escape someone)
baṯa good at (hunting or gathering), expert, smart, intelligent
baṯa with, together Comitative object
bäṯa rootfood--red skinned yam "Wild Carrot"
baṯamiListenwoman, female
-baṯaŋu rightful, correct, proper
batarra tree Paperbark, Melaleuca sp.
baṯi(')Listenspear--with wooden barbs (used for fighting, hunting (emu, wallaby) or dancing)
bäti knife--short, two-edged
batigut petticoat, skirt
baṯpa(')Listenreef--in deeper waters, offshore underwater rocks turtles' feeding area ṯ good place to find turtle
baṯparrarra' tree Eucalyptus tectifica (?)
baṯpaṯthunListenget, collect (shellfish), pick off (fruit), scrape the bark (off of tree)
baṯpirrirri wasp--yellow, has a long nose with which it feeds its young makes its home out of anthills (gundirr) or in a tree, signals the presence of a beehive in a tree
batpuluk cattle
baṯthawuma give, hand (over)
baṯtjama fruit or inedible seed of mangrove trees
baṯtjurr star (generic)
batumaŋListenswimming goggles
baṯuŋguListenboy, young man circumcised (in Mandiyala ceremony)
bathalaListenbig, large, huge
bathanListencook, boil, burn, set fire to Ext sting (of sea-wasp)
bathanaListenprivate, secret
bathapu(') hat
batharripaListenMacassan, Macassarese
bathathakiListengetting everything together to move to another place
bathiListencontainer, dillybag, basket, box, packet
bathi-gurririmirriListensnake Death Adder
bäthu(')Listenrock, stone
batji container, dillybag, basket, box, packet
batjikaliListencan, tin thimble small metal cup at end of pipe that holds tobacco
batjilaListenbeach area
batjilaListenBatchelor (site of Batchelor College and SAL)
batjimurruŋu shellfish--edible Angular Ear Shell, Cassidula angulifera
batjipaŋ thimble small metal cup at end of pipe that hold tobacco
batjiwarrListenpath, road, way, track
batjkitpuḻ basketball
batjparra' mat--pandanus
batjpatjListensickness, pain, disease
bätju(')Listenstick--digging, yamstick tree--its wood is made into yamsticks Pemphis acidula
bätjupatjuListenshirt, coat, jacket
batjuwarrListenpath, road, way
baw(')yun burst, break, explode, blow up hatch (egg) blossom, bloom (flower)
bäw'Listenpleasant (smell), aromatic, fragrant perfume, cologne
bäw' burst, explode fart loudly
bawa'Listencraziness, insanity, stupidity
bawalaListenaccidentally, at random, unintentionally
bawalatj wrong (one) mistake, error
bäwaŋListenpotato(es) vegetables (especially earthcrops) Yam, "Native Potato", Dioscorea nummularia, D. transversa Ipomoea velutina
bäwarraṉ bird, animal, meat skin
bawatj surprise
bäwi(') pig
bawitjListentide--high, full tide
bawkthun chop, fell
bawu grass--used along with hot stones when cooking turtle to keep the heat and smoke inside Vetiveria elongata Spinifex longifolius (?)
bawu hair of a corpse
bay'ListenOh!, Hey!, Are you with me?, Yes or no? interrogative particle
bay'Listenleave (behind, aside), abandon
bäyListenNevermind!, Still..., Until..., Could be
bäythirriListenmiss out (on something)
bäya nevermind
bäya fire
bayakthirri reject, not want (something)
bäyaku fair go!
bayam'bun buy pay (for)
bayaŋu abundant, lots (of)
bäyaŋuListennone, nothing
bayapaya rope attached to sail for navigation
bayapuḻa place name
bäyarra(') pay (back), take revenge (deserved) reward, fair chance, fair go, vengence, retribution
bayarrak bee--non-stinging found lower in tree said to be the father of yarrpany, whose hive is found at the top of the tree
bäyatj nevermind
bayaw'wun collect (objects)
bayaya Never mind Forget it even if, although
bayiday-wik pay week
bayikuListenof/for that (one/person) yonder
bayikuḻ(i)Listento that (person, far)
bayikuŋListenfrom that (one), made by that (person)
bayikuraListenby/with that (person, far)
bayikuru from that (person)
bayikurumurruListenabout that (person, far)
bayikuruyListenabout that (person) yonder
bayikuyListenabout that (one) yonder
bäyimListenbuy pay (for) tr cost in
bayiniListenWhite Woman, Asian lady, non-Aboriginal woman
bayiŋListenusually, always HABitual action
bayiŋListenby that (person), with/using that (one) also PAST (?)
bayirr kangaroo, euro--female
bayitjanListenthrough that (one, way) yonder
bayiwaḻiListenfrom that (one, far) then, afterwards
bäykarrarama take no notice (of), disobey
bäymaListenclose (around here/there) behind
baymaṉ' tree--resembling Terminalia carpentariae
bäymaŋu everlasting, eternal
baymatthunListenhit, beat, bash gather, get (shellfish, yams) affect
bäyŋuListennone, nothing, not at all
baypay good place to get honey
baypinŋa fish Saratoga, Scleropages jardini
baywaḻi(ya)Listenafter that, thereafter
be somewhere (else, far away) maybe
be'yunListenrub root of tree on thigh to make string (for dilly bag)
bebik bird Black-faced Cuckoo Shrike, Coracina novaehollandiae
bebiyik cf See: BEBIK
biḏam fish Long-Tom Fish
biḏi'yun paint, rub onto, apply (paint, ointment to), colour (in)
biḏibiḏi bird--small Robin (?)
biḏidjirr' root--edible Eriosema chinense
biḏil waterlily leaf
biḏila liver
biḏila bad, inedible
biḏila rootfood vine--root can only be eaten after careful preparation
biḏimbiḏa snake Water Python
biḏiŋal ḻikan
biḏipi(') scar (traditionally put on body as symbol for a dead relative)
biḏipiḏi tree--found in flood plains Paperbark, Melaleuca sp. (-viridiflora ?)
biḏitj spear-thrower, woomera--long and curved (for fish spear or harpoon, used when hunting turtles or dugong)
biḏitj nearly, almost
biḏiwiḏi bird-small with yellow feathers Peewee
biḏiwiḏitjkuma wipe (out, up, e.g., something spilt), rub out, erase (e.g., pencil mark)
bidjal fish--freshwater
bidjay' lizard, goanna--small, dark-coloured, found in lowland plains
bidjipun choppy water--be(come, especially of whirlwind to make it so)
bidjuḏu whirlwind
bikaḏa arm band
bekaŋ(') hook, fishhook line with hook
bikilanydjiwuy surname
bekiny(') crab--edible generic for crabs inhabiting rocky tidal zones especially near mud flats Fiddler Crab, Uc c a sp.
bikipiki pig(s)
bikpikthun shake off something adhering (e.g., stinging insect, water off dog, paint of brush)
bil turn (around, -about face, -into), change (direction or state)
bil'yun bent--be, become crooked wag tail
biḻa(') track, print, mark on ground (left by snake, lizard, or crawling child)
biḻak black
biḻaka grass--used along with hot stones when cooking turtle to keep the heat and smoke inside Vetiveria elongata, Spinifex longifolius
belam(a) dig (for roots) scratch
bilamapilama bird Black-Shouldered Kite
bilanya like, similar to
biḻanydji dugong tail
bilaŋ anytime, sometime
beḻaŋ calm, quiet
biḻaŋ'thun lick
biḻarraŋdhirri heal, become healed
biḻayn (aero)plane
biḻ'biḻ tree--wood used to make tapsticks Exocarpos latifolius tapsticks, clapstick(s)
biḻbiḻthun howl (dog)
biḻbiḻyun be unfirm (of building, structure)
bili because, since and (then) causal, completive or interrogative word
biḻi-biḻi bird Bowerbird
biligut billy goat
biḻimbiḻ(il) hole in which python lives (sacred place)
biḻinbiḻin house--big
bilinydjan(') mälk-f
biḻiŋga faeces
bilip(-b)ilipthun fan a fire flip (off as dust), shake (sand off hands), brush away (flies)
bilipin Philippines, Filipino
bilit plate
bilitjpilitj bird Red-Winged Parrot, Aprosmictus erythropterus
biḻitjuman policeman
bilkthun cover (up, over) deceive
biḻk excreta, faeces, vul shit
bilkpilk flat (surface)
biḻkpiḻk bird Peewee, Mudlark
biḻma clapstick(s)
biḻmaŋaniŋ beetle grub moth from larvae like that of witchetty grub
biḻmirr tree
bilŋarr vulva, external female sex organs
bilŋbilŋdhun walk with wobbly knees clap knees together (as in morning star and mokuy dances)
biḻparr(') chips, shavings (from wood), splinter, scraps (of paper)
biḻparr flat
bil'pilyun straighten (spears)
biḻ(')piḻyun break (of day, after last star has gone)
biḻ'piḻ tree--has yellow flower used as rubbing medicine for diarrhoea, earache, and other illnesses the inner bark is mixed with water and then wiped all over the body or put in the ears Jacksonia dilatata
belpil stingray
beḻpiḻ blunt (knife)
bel'pil pliable, easily bent
bilthu(') fish--found in tidal rivers Archer Fish, "Rifle Fish"
biḻtjawunuma shoot (with gun)
bembi sheep, lamb
binaluŋ opposite, other (side), aside
binana banana
beṉawa shellfish--edible Angular Ear Shell, Cassidula angulifera
biṉbapthun recur (sickness, sore)
binbarr wing leaf small sliver or shred (flint, tobacco)
binbin(') scales (fish)
biṉḏabarr'parryun crack (ground, rock, wood, fibre)
bindarr' root food--swamp plant with edible tubers Triglochin procera
biṉḏay grass--along rivers Cane Grass, Chionachne cyathopoda
biṉḏirrk swelling, lump in the breast
biṉḏirrkthun strike (a match)
biṉḏiyalŋu rootfood
bindiyay creeper with spiny fruits Tribulus cistoides
bindha rib(s)
biṉdharr'yun swear, use bad language
biṉdjarra(') axe (stone or old-fashioned metal, tied together with string)
biṉdjirra' axe--stone, short
bindjurrwuy spear
biṉgal stick--small, sharp, pointed used by boys after circumcision for holding food by girls at puberty ceremonies for scratching head by women for digging shellfish and hitting self or ground in grief generally by anyone to search for nits in hair, clean sore
bini particle making statement as contrary to fact
biṉi stingray--large big ba:mbi, mother of dja:tji
biṉiny nail--finger or toe, claw
bininydjirri arrow
biṉinymirr(i) lizard Mangrove Monitor, Varanus indicus
biṉ'ṯawu mud, earth, gravel
bin'tjuḻ pencil
binhdha rib(s)
beny worm (includes harmful parasitic worms)
beny bala and so on (until)
binydjaḻŋu shark-fat or liver
binydjarr'yun fish kill, spear
binydji flat, thin
binydjitj thin, fleshless, skinny flat unnoticeable
binygirrigirriyirri itchy--be, scratch an itch make a noise to show someone is coming
binygurr plant--chenopod Tecticornia australasica
biny'tju sandstone, sand stones
biŋ'thun suck (as air through teeth)
biŋal axe
biŋga'yun wake up, be awake be wary, ready
biŋgipiŋgiyun toss and turn (from restlessness), move around (as when sleeping or about to wake up)
biŋk pink
biŋu then, after that, so
biŋulu from there (yonder) Conj after that, then
biŋum that (one, near you)
beŋur(u) hence, from there, from that
beŋur(u) after(wards), then, later
biŋurumdhu with that, using that (one)
beparran snake--freshwater, non-poisonous
bepi bird Banded Fruit-Dove
bipimirriny bird Comb-crested Jacana, Jacana gallinacea
bepuka bird Dove sp.
bir'yun sparkle, glitter, shine
bira'yun wake up, be awake, open one's eyes
biral belt (made of string) Ext seatbelt
birandjitj Frances
birapthun flash, give out gleam of light
biray(') tree--edible fleshy fruits Yellow-fruited Tree, Denhamia obscura Pouteria sericea
birayti Friday
birim lizard Large Rock Goanna, Varanus glebopalma
birirr wake (e.g., of dugong at night)
biritj-goḻ Pre-School
birkarr'yun chant during Yirritja ceremonies (by calling out place names, etc.)
birkpirk bird Kingfisher sp.
birku(') stick--smooth, heavy, with rounded end (for fighting or turtle hunting), club (usually made from Ironwood)
birŋ'gun clap (hands) in slap tr
birpa rectum
birpa' flesh (of snail or shellfish)
birr stand
birr(') very TIME or LOC Intensifier
birral belt
birrali corn, maize, wheat (any small seeds or grains)
birraŋany side half
birrarrapi axe
berratha(') rice wheat barley (cereals)
birrbirryun fly off get up and go Pl
birrgi' tree Green Plum, Buchanania obovata
birrgugu rememberance of an unkindness for later retribution
birrimbiḏi sea-serpent (?)
birrimbirr soul, human spirit (goes to land of departed spirits to be reincarnated)
birrinyguma gather together (e.g., people for death ceremony, flock of birds in a tree)
birrip(-b)irrip bird--bustard, announces the Dhuwa dead when they arrive at Burralku
birrirri'yun turn around (key in lock), screw (top on jar), wring (clothes), stir, twist start up (motor)
birritjama surname
birrka' accidentally, by mistake, at random
birrka' joke, something funny
birrkili clan-nation (western Da)
birrkilin spear--old fashioned, with a wooden blade
birrkin-birrkin crocodile--saltwater
berrkmirriŋu mob(s), a great number (of people)
berrkŋu Praying Mantis, Stick-Insect
birrkpirrk bird--bustard, announces the Dhuwa dead Banded Plover, Masked Plover, Masked Lapwing, Vanellus miles
birrkpirrkŋaniŋ tree/shrub Pink Pigface, Seapurslane, Suaeda australis Arthrocnemum leiostachyum Batis argillicola Sesuvium portulacastrum Tecticornia australasica
birrku(') moon--full
birrkuḏa bee--honey "Cheeky Bee", Trigona sp.
birrkuku(') fish--with black and white stripe Butterfish
birrmanda shrub--edible berry Green Plum, Wild Plum
birrnyilpirrnyil very old person
birrŋ'thun spread (fire, story, news), increase in size, get bigger
birrŋarr turtle Pacific Ridley, Lepidochelys olivasea
birrŋaw'yun scatter, spread out in all directions
birrŋir'bun hiccup burp
birr'pirryun rub sticks together stamp feet (?)
birrpunu rope for flag
birrpurra fish
birru'birrun whistle (of the wind)
berrupirru star
birrwakthun spread, increase
birrwirryun fly off (as a flock of birds), take off (mass dispersal in all directions) rise, get up and go (everyone after ceremony or meeting)
birrwirra(') fish--found in mangroves and salt-water creeks Black-Spotted Dart, Trachinotus bailloni Dart(s), T. blochi, T. russelli
bet bed
bitmaram(a) graze, brush against, just miss (spear), almost touch
biṯthun sting (of wasp, jellyfish)
biṯa shrub--used as string fruit--black when ripe, can be eaten red if cooked Burney Vine
bitata potato European
biṯi hip back leg (turtle)
biṯi'yun carry (in dillybag) hung around shoulder
biṯpiṯ shoot(s), new growth (on plant)
bitrul petrol
biṯtharryun set a fire gather a lot of wood and get it set for a fire
bittja(') picture(s), film, photo(graph), image
biturul petrol
biturrunatu buffalo
bithiwul none, nothing
bitja(') picture(s), film, photo(graph), image
bitjan thus, like this
bitji snake scales or skin
bitjiṉiny tree-mangrove leaves used for cooking dugong and turtle acts as a preservative lemony smell from crushed leaf Myrtle Mangrove, Osbornia octodonta
bitjirayta refrigerator
bitjit visit
betjitj pieces
bitjkit biscuit
bitju-wayiŋ just like
biw'yun fan (fire) brush away (flies) (of wind) fan (you) when in the shade
bew'yun blow
bewaḻi from that (one), from there, after that
bewik bird Black-faced Cuckoo Shrike, Coracina novaehollandiae
bewiya grass--growing in paperbark swamps & wetlands Bullrush, Eleocharis sp.
bewiyik bird Black-Faced Cuckoo Shrike, Coracina novaehollandiae
biwula bird Seagull sp.
biyal fish--small, freshwater
biyamarr wind--strong
biyaṉi fright, (reasoned) fear
biyaṉu fear
biyaŋ greedy for
biyapiya intestines, guts
biyapul more, again, another (of the same)
biyarrmak funny, humourous, amusing, clowning (around)
biyarrthan cook, roast burn (e.g., jellyfish sting)
biyawik bird Black-shouldered Kite, Elanus notatus
biyawiliny tree fruit--small, grape-like, edible, available in jungle areas after Christmas
biyawilitj tree fruit--edible
biyay(') lizard--large goanna Varanus sp.
biyirr'yun twist
beyiwiya' reed--swamp
biyiwiyik bird
biyuŋu yam--with grassy leaves
bom boom (of a canoe)
buma hit (hard), beat kill gather, pick, collect (wild foods, honey, shellfish) prepare (tobacco) bite (of sandfly or mosquito) shoot (gun) make (basket) affect
bumbarru rock, stone hill
bumbum car, motorcar, truck
bomiḻa shellfish--large edible Oyster sp. found in mud and mangroves
bominya tree/shrub--edible fruit Kurrajong
bon kneecap
boṉ spoon
buna arrive come (up to), visit
buṉaki have an accident
bunaṉatjini clan-nation and language
bunaṉbunaṉ cicada
buṉapi(') seaslug, trepang--small, found in mud
boṉba butterfly (generic)
bunbaṯpaṯ coiled around (as snake)
buṉbu shelter--of bush or bough, hut, native house Ext house (of European design)
bunbun' rootfood Vigna vexillata
buṉbuṉ' white paint made from clay
buṉḏalal cramp, palsy, "pins and needles", numbness, stiffness
buṉḏalŋu back, lumbar spine, centre of back
bundi(') turtle sub-adult Hawksbill Turtle
bondi quick(ly), fast
bundul bird--hawk, commonly seen soaring over settlements Black (Fork-tailed) Kite
bundurr clan, surname (given to a person or clan--relating to territory or totems)
bonhdhu' beeswax--hard, black (at bottom of beehive)
buṉdjuŋu(') tree with large green/yellow fruit Wild Orange Tree, Capparis umbonata
buṉitjun apply sweat to (someone, in bestowal ritual)
bun'kumu knee
buṉ'ṯaŋu snake Black-Headed (Rock) Python, Aspi ol,d ites melanocephalus
boṉu(') tree Eucalypt sp.
buṉulk pollen dust Ext dry flour (rubbed on kneaded damper)
bonhdhu beeswax (used for wearing in hole of nose)
bunhdhurr lame, crippled (person) unable to fly (domestic fowl)
bunhdhuwulu weak, helpless
buny'tjun suck (on) smoke (tobacco) kiss
bunybu(') shellfish--eaten raw Mud Welk, Terebralia p e,a lustris
bunydjarrŋa(') tree Cashew
bunydji anus, arse
bunydjul yam--edible, growing on prostrate vine Ipomoea velutina (?)
bunydjuŋu fruit--green inside
boŋa perfume, aromatic powder (anything to make one smell nice)
buŋaḻati tree--edible purple fruit
buŋbulyun rise (of smoke or steam)
buŋbuŋdhun boil
buŋgama drift with current, float on top of water (e.g., crocodile, log, leaf, but not boat)
boŋgam(a) break (of day) tomorrow definite FUT marker
buŋgan smell, scent, aroma (good or bad) (Rit) body odor
buŋgana leg
buŋgaṯthun be happy feel refreshed be relaxed, relieved feel enthusiastic
buŋgawa boss, leader owner, master Ext captain (of sports team) foreman
buŋgu'yun agree, nod head in agreement
buŋgul ceremony, "business", rite, ritual celebration, carnival song sung with didjeridoos and tapsticks (may be accompanied by dancing)
boŋguŋ(u) tomorrow (early, at daybreak) sometime (in the immediate future)
boŋirriny smelly, rotten (paper or wood) (?) spider--large, lives in the ground
buŋ'puŋdhun make a kissing noise (with lips pushed forward)
boŋu waterhole
boŋurru drunk, intoxicated
buŋuṯul tortoise
boŋuwuy waterhole
bop sound of digeridoo or siren
bopaṉa fish Cook's Soldier Fish, Apogon cooki Black-Tipped Fusilier, Caesio chrysozonus Whiptail, Pentapodus paradiseus Lined Spine-Cheek, Scolopsis lineatus
bopu voice box, "Adam's apple" windpipe, throat
bopu pawpaw
bup(-b)up throat
bo'puyŋu messenger, apostle
bur arrive, come
buryun come to nothing fall through
bur' current (water) swirling around rock
bura middle
burakirri hurt--be, wounded (by spear)
burala bird Darter, Anhinga melanogaster
buram wasp--builds a nest of leaves Paper Wasp (?)
burapura bird--seabird with red beak
burarra clan-nation & language
burarrwaŋa surname whale
burathan(') Sea Urchin
burburbunuma paint (person, bark) colour in outlines
burdji'yun rub out, erase, make no effect
burgu(') flower (Rit) pollen
buriny (out, as pus from boil)
burirritj fish (generic)
boriya whale bones
burk dry, dried out
burkthun surface (from under water), float rise through fermentation (as cycad nut food)
burpa(') rootfood--small, round, must be cooked found in shallow water in billabongs, similar to waterlily, Nymphaea violacea Ext bullet
borpul purple
bur'puryun be winded, become puffed (from running)
burugurr' tree River Whistling Tree, Casuarina cunninghamiana
burukpili tree--edible fruit taken as a medicine for colds and sore throat, root is used for yellow dye Great Morinda, Cheesefruit, Pain-Killer Fruit, Morinda citrifolia
burul snake--short, dark, found in trees and harmless juvenile Olive Python
burulpurulŋani mushroom
burulpurulŋaniŋ tree Clerodendrum inerme
borum fruit (generic for local and introduced, but excludes cycad nuts)
borum ripe, cooked
buruminy shellfish--edible Gafrarium tumidum
burumŋu pus (from boil)
burumu' tree with edible red "apples" Syzygium suborbiculare, Eugenia suborbicularis
burumun' cheek (down to jaw) Ext island bud (of plant), fruit, nut
buruŋgulk brittle, threadbare, fragile, weak covered with footprints
buruŋgurr bird Australian Pelican
buruŋurr scrotum, testicle(s)
bururr'yun wipe, dry
bururrpururr tree--small with edible fruits Diospyros maritima, D. ferrea (var. humilis)
burut-burut rat--small
burwu(') flower (not plant), blossom (Rit) pollen
buryi'yun erase, rub out, make no effect
bur'yuŋurrkama distress severely (person) capsise (canoe)
burr'yun dance, play
burrakuma threaten confront
burralaŋ(') mälk-m wallaby
burralaŋ' bird White-necked Heron
burralkthun sing in a special way (for initiate or deceased person)
burralku land of departed spirits home of the morning star
burra'ṉi run along (as goanna)
burrburryun sing for deceased person in camp concert or cleansing ceremony (to accompaniment of clapsticks) make noise (like an engine)
burr'burryun fall off
burrguyun gallop (of buffalo, horse)
burrgutj lungs
burrinhdhiya leprosy
burriŋi shellfish--edible Mud Welk
burriṯiŋu whip
borrk appearance, character(istic), quality same (in appearance, character)
burrkpurrk joint (part of body which "clicks" when arm, leg or back is stretched suddenly)
burrkun scar man's chest mark
burrkun rope
burrkunuŋ dance--of women in Circumcision Ceremony (at a given point the women run in a circle around the men)
burrkuwurrku ceremonial headband of mixed colours (made from wool or string with parrot or chicken feathers)
burrmalala cyclone, destructive wind
burrmiḏi peaceful, peace-loving
burrmiḻa bird--seabird
burrnyiḏiḏi tree/shrub--with white flowers
burrpal Witchetty Grub--beyond pupa stage (with legs, but not flying)
burrpaṉḏala plant--useless (e.g., Tinospora smilacina or Gardenia sp.) Ḏmildly rudeṈ
burrpar two
burrpiḻ'yun give a "raspberry" blow in a person's eye
burrpu cruel, callous, destructive having an affair with the wrong relation
burrpu vine--thick, strong, growing on trees has a druglike affect if smoked Snake Vine, Tinospora smilacina, Stephania japonica
burrpurryun bog (down), be stuck, get covered (in mud, sand, dirt)
burr'purryun fall (as leaves from tree, pile of books)
burrpuy leprosy curse, black magic, sorcery
burrtjun flatulate, pass air, "fart" (rude)
borru' ringworm skin disease (brownish-white rings on skin)
burru(-)burruthuŋan comfort, greet a mourner or one paying respects to the dead
burruḏupthun ride (a horse or on shoulders), sit astride (on a horse or dog)
burrudhiṯthun scoop up
burrudhuḻ'dhuḻ measles
burrugu shark--newly born/young, edible (generic)
burrukala butterfly
burrukuy' yam--edible, growing on prostrate vine Ipomoea velutina (?)
burrul'yun fall (out, off, down)
burruḻuḻu ground--soft, muddy
burrumburr tree/shrub--very white bark is used to make string inedible red fruit string
burrumilkama misunderstand
burrumiṯpa fish Estuary Rock Cod, Epinephelus malabaricus Black-Tipped Rock Cod, E. fasciatus Groper, Promicrops lanceolatus
borrumŋu relative--close
burrumunuŋ cold, stale (food) numb(ness), stiff(ness) cramp, pins and needles
burruṉburruṉ creeper--small edible white berries Dodder Laurel, Devil's Guts, Cassytha filiformis, Grevillia dryandri, G. goodii
burrunhalawuy Gum
burrunhdhiya(') leprosy
burrunhdhiya'kuma mix food with too much water
burruŋa interrupt
burruŋandi' turtle--smelly freshwater tortoise Chelodina novaeguineae (?)
burruŋburruŋ part of animal near muscle, non-edible, thrown away
burrupiḻ turtle, tortoise
burru'purru sickness--spots on body due to sunburn or disease
burru'purruka g-string, small cloth rag
burruṯtji snake Water Python, Liasis fuscus
burrutha(') hair-ribbon
borrutj Sandfly (or small mosquito ?)
burruwaḻi' spirit--black cat-like animal with white neck and red eye, flies around at night and is associated with devils or ghosts
burruwu shark--young, edible (generic)
burrwarr take, snatch
burrwu shark
burrwurryun sing in mourning (for deceased person in camp concert or cleansing ceremony to accompaniment of clapsticks) make droning noise, throb (engine)
burrwutj lung(s)
burrwuttji snake Water Python
bo'puyŋu messenger Ext apostle
bo'yun blow (of wind in , or of a person at a fire tr )
bubu Good bye!
bububa water
bububu wasp--large Eumenes sp.
buḏaga' fruit of Kurrajong tree
buḏalkiny plant--small, found on ridges
buḏapthun cross (over), go down across or over
buḏaw' burst, shatter explode, go off (gun), blast (dynamite)
boḏiny tame, not prone to anger, calm, quiet Ext ineffectual Idm poor (hunter)
buḏipuḏi wallaby Narbarlek, Little Rock-Wallaby, Peradorcas concinna
buḏuḏupthun gallop
buḏuga(') tree--used for firesticks Clerodendrum floribundum sometimes confused with C.-cunninghamii
boḏuk beetle (generic) cockroach black beetle sp.--with two red spots on its back
buḏurr'yun rub
buḏurrutjtjun turn to start (tap, engine), twist, wring out (clothes)
buḏuyurr whirlwind twisted strands of rope
budju'yun rub or roll fibres on one's thigh (to make rope or string)
bogu in search of (?)
bogun cup, Paperbark container
bugutj-bugutj bird Bar-shouldered Dove
bok box
bukaḏaŋu brother
bukalakarr shrub Smilax australis
bukaŋu saved (food)
bukaŋu all, whole, entire
bukaway dream(s)
boki harpoon
bukimaŋgatharra Macassan, Macassarese Ext foreigner (non-Aboriginal)
bokit pocket
bokitj bird Quail sp.
bukmak all, every entirety, whole lot
bokman create, make
buku hill, cliff, mountain, summit, high peak
buku face, forehead will, mind
buku slice, hunk, piece of food (cut off for someone) end (of rope, story), climax
bukuḻatjpi surname
bokulu'yirr(i) forget
bukumuk feeling--heavy or dizzy, in head (e.g., after eating too much maypal)
buku(-)muk dark(ness), pitch black
bukurum(a) look up(wards)
bukurru(') fish
buku(-)waṉ'waṉ high (up)
bul cook
bulyun splash in water, be of or in water
bul' fall make noise of something dropped, e.g., stone
buḻ'yunListenswell (up, as infection)
buḻ'yunListenplay act (in a drama or play)
buḻa(') fish--parasitic, attaches to other fish Short Sucker Fish, Remora remora Idm offsider, helper
bola intestine--large dugong's stomach moon
bulal' two
buḻany(') mälk-m kangaroo
buḻanybirr Porpoise
buḻanydjan(') mälk-f
buḻaŋgarr rat
buḻaŋgitj good (in quality), excellent, favourable, pleasing
buḻarr lie (down, on back)
bulatja' fish Grey Schnapper
bulay(i) rich jewelery, gold, precious stones, bronze treasure
bulayi tin, pannikin
bulbul slow, lethargic, sluggish, lacking in energy
buḻbuḻmarama mix fat of stringray with meat (for flavouring)
buḻbuḻyun come in (tide)
buḻ'buḻyun sneak along camouflaged with branches
buldji dilly bag--ceremonial, decorated with feathers
bulgut tree Kurrajong, Brachychiton diversifolium, B. paradoxis
buliki(') cattle, cow beef, lamb (European red meats)
buḻiḻi bush fruit Eugenia bleeseri
bulinhdha' stir, mix
boḻk semen, sperm, "cum" (rude)
bulka' hair--body, fur, feather(s) Ext root of yam or vegetable food
bulkaniny caterpillar (generic)
bulkuŋu thunder
buḻ'madji shark--dangerous
bulman woomera, flat spear-thrower
buḻ'manydji shark (generic for adults of Carcharhinus spp.)
bulmarra fish Red Emperor
bulmirri grass-type plant
bulmurrk palm tree--found in spring country, when young it has leaf stems growing straight from the ground the stalks of which are edible Kentia Palm, Northern Kentia, Gronophyllum ramsayi
bulmuyuk died down, gone out (of fire) fresh remains of a fire recently extinguished
bulnha slowly, gently, carefully, cautiously
buḻnyin possum fur
buḻnyirr'marama move (run, drive) fast march (like goose-step), move with knees high
bulŋu(') turtle leg or breast (?)
buḻŋu(') soft, fine, powderlike, crumbly (of ground or fruit) scattered bits (in fine pieces), ashes
bol'ŋu wind-destructive: water spout, cyclone, tornado
bulŋuyuk extinguished (fire), not alight Ext not carrying a firestick people with no fire storage place (for food) after fire has died
bulpu' basket made from pandanus fibres
buḻpuḻ(') flower feather
buḻpuḻyun burn
bul'pulyun make noise of stamping feet or walking hard on ground
buḻpupuyun swell, blister
bulu again, more (of the same), also, too then (again), but
bolu bamboo (introduced by Macassans)
buḻuk feather(s)--white (usually of Sea Eagle) used for ceremonial body-painting or armbands
buluki cattle, cow beef, lamb (European red meats)
bulukminy snake Javan File Snake
bulukminyŋaniŋ tree--red flowers (April-July) which children tap to loosen the sweet honey female Hakea arborescens Grevillea heliosperma
boḻuku rotten, mouldy rot, mould, mildew, decomposing matter Ext tobacco old cycad nuts (on the ground--can be eaten if cooked in leaves or paperbark)
boḻuku' flour, meal (made from yams)
bulul'yun open (out, as blanket)
bololo tree
buḻumbuḻ hair--white/grey white powder in Paperbark
buḻumitj underpants, women's panties
bulunu(') east (wind) fruit of White Berry Bush
buḻuŋga(') dirty, dusty murky, "milky", turbid (water) plastered (with mud or paint, e.g., ceremonial design plastered not painted on) faded, pale (colour)
buḻuŋun(') lump (on body or in rope), knot (in tree or wood), hump (on camel), carved out lump for seat in canoe
buḻurruka' shrub--with soft edible white fruits Securinega virosa
bulurruŋ flaky (food, tobacco) cooked on the outside (but not throughout) old cycad nuts (on ground--can be eaten if cooked)
bulutjaŋa fish--freshwater
bolutju(') beard, moustache, facial hair
bolutju'lili grandchild DC, FMSC, MFDC
buḻwaŋ'thun break in pieces, smash fly in all directions (as blown ashes)
bul'warryun fly away
bulwul slow, lethargic, sluggish, lacking in energy
buḻwuḻmarama mix fat of stringray with meat (for flavouring)
bulwunu(') east (wind) fruit of White Berry Bush
bulwut tree/shrub--with edible seeds Red-flowering Kurrajong, Darwin Kurrajong, Brachychiton parodoxis, B. diversifolium
buḻwutja(') rootfood--grass with peanut-like roots
buḻyapuḻya tree Wild Cassava Tree, Wild Cotton Tree, Cochlospermum fraseri
dharru  a1
ḏuwaṯ  go from sea to land, go upwards
buta good (character), wholesome, clean, beautiful (personality)
buta card game
boṯaŋ tree/shrub--edible berries Native Gooseberry, Physalis mini m,n a
butpi sedge--small Cyperus sp.
buṯpilk-buṯpilk parrot Budgerigar (?)
butpuḻ football
butputthun swell (up), be firm (of breasts)
buttharr'yun make fire (especially for cooking)
buṯtjiriŋaniŋ grass Barb-Wire Grass
botu-butu tractor, iron bar, crank, axe
buṯukali spear-thrower, flat woomera
buththun defecate, "shit" ḎrudeṈ
butha card game
buthalak yellow--light (ochre, used to make body paint)
buthinipa belt--made from string
bothirri lie, deceive, tell lies (to) imitate
bothubuthukuma plait, braid, twist
buthugulk(k)ulk expression of pleasure
buthuḻu(') bottle
buthuŋu scorpion (harmful)
buthuru ear frill (of Frilled Lizard)
buthurr bark--red-coloured inner bark of Wild Peach medicine (made from this) for diarrhoea or pimples and sores
bothurru count
buthuwa defecate, excrete lay (egg) give birth
botj tree Ironwood, Erythropleum chlorostachyum
butjala surname
botjama build, make, manufacture
botji rain
butjikit cat, kitten
botjin(') poison
butjiri smell--bad, stink smelly, reek, stench
butjiriŋaniŋ grass Litsea glutinosa Barb-Wire Grass, Cymbopogon refracta (?)
butju feather(s)
butju bird Duck sp.
butjulama entice, draw in spread bait
botjulk kind and loving, "cool, calm, and collected", unruffled
botjulu(') fish Jewfish, Mulloway
butjuluram spread bait
botjuŋ bowl, large jar, (earthenware) pitcher Macassan pot (for cooking trepang)
butjuwutju rootfood herb
buwa Hey! address term--general (non-avoidance) for anyone, except that a young person should not use it to an elder used to attract attention
buwakul vine--climber, with edible root swellings Cayratia trifolia
buwaḻ'yun break of day
buwaḻa robust (neither fat nor skinny) short Ḏyounger generation's speechṈ
buwalawal tree--used in boat building and for shelters Red Ash, Soap Tree, Alphitonia Alphitia excelsa, Malaisia scandens
buwal-buwalyun bubble up
buwalkthun surface, come up (from under water, as crocodile or submarine)
buwaḻkpuwaḻk mould
buwal-wuwalyun bubble up
buwarrpuwarr clan
buwat insect--any fly, bee, or wasp specific: Blowfly (?)
buwaṯa bird Plains Turkey, Australian Bustard, Ardeotis australis
buwaṯaŋaniŋ tree/shrub--leaves are crushed and boiled, then used as medicine for fever, sore ears, flu, indegestion and diarrhoea warm leaves can be put directly on a painful area Clerodendrum floribundum
buwayak invisible, faint, indistinct, faded, pale
bowun container--Paperbark (for honey, water, shellfish)
bo'wuyŋu messenger Ext apostle
-buy ASsoCiative: about (a story about a crocodile), from (a man from Darwin)
boy yellow fatty part of crab
boy' blow (at, on) have sexual intercourse
boy' spark (red-hot material that falls from the firestick onto the dry tinder)
buyamaŋaniŋ tree/shrub--big orange flower edible part (?)
boyan hit, kill collect, gather
boyaŋ paper
buyapuya porpoise--young
boyara brain marrow unhealthy discharge (e.g., pus, phlegm)
buyku raft (made from Paperbark)
buymanman tree
buymarr fire
buypi surface
buypuru stone--used for crushing cycad
buyu strips of Pandanus leaves--dried out and ready for weaving (the) weave, way of weaving
buyu' shrub Grewia orientalis or similar sp. (?)
buyu'yun rub or roll bark fibres on one's thigh (to make rope or string)
buyubuyu smooth
buyuka fire(wood)
buyuwuyu smooth (not rough or coarse)
buyuyugululmirr clan-nation (western Dl)
buyuyukuḻuḻmirr clan-nation (western Dl)
ḏaba'yun look back (behind, to the side, or over one's shoulder) go back (to get, have another look)
ḏabaḏaba'yun shake head (in disagreement) refuse, say no
ḏäbi clan-nation (Djinba, nearly extinct)
ḏabuṯabu bird--owl Nightjar Pacific Baza, Aviceda subcristata
ḏaḏa'yun cleanse, purify in ceremony (e.g. house of a dead person by burning branches around it)
ḏaḏakarr'yun make a scraping noise (moving feet)
ḏaḏatj in vain, to no avail
ḏaḏaw stop (doing), cease, finish
ḏäḏi(y) firewood, twigs
ḏagatj plant--found near river banks
ḏak cut (off) break circumcise
ḏäk pelvis, hipbone
ḏakarr spear-thrower, curved woomera (for fish spear)
ḏakawa(') crustacean--prawns & crayfish, e.g: Rainbow Prawn School Prawn Penaeus and Metapenaeus spp River Crayfish Western Crayfish, Chaerax albidus etc.
dakitaki duck
ḏakṯak possum--young
ḏäku bent
ḏakul(') axe (generic)
ḏäkul(') tree--grows along beach White-Flowered Black Mangrove, Lu m,tn itzera racemosa
ḏal break, crack be crushed
ḏal hit
ḏalun cut (down), knock down
ḏaḻun stiff--be(come)
ḏäl strong, hard, steady, firm, difficult
ḏäla stomach nest of paper wasp
ḏalalakthirri faint, be unconscious or half-dead
ḏalaṉḏalkthirri faint, be unconscious or half-dead
dalbindjir cup
ḏalgirr orchid--especially tree orchid
ḏalkarramirr(i) leader(s) of Yirritja ceremonies, old man (implies full knowledge of the law, songs, sacred business, etc.)
ḏaḻkumbi goanna
ḏalmark maggot
ḏalpam dead
ḏalpan quiet, idle, lazy
ḏalwaḏalwa material--thick (like canvas): tent, tarpaulin, ground sheet
ḏalwur ignorant, stupid, not very bright, not capable of thinking not good at (work, gets tired of job before it's finished or like children who don\'t know how to think properly), poor at (hunting or providing), "useless"
ḏam'thun put into or stuff one's mouth (all at once) trap, lock in (as feet in stocks), close (mouth or fist) around
ḏamala bird--male/mature White-Breasted Sea Eagle, Haliaeetus leucogaster Wedge-tailed Eagle, Aquila audax Black-breasted Buzzard, Hamirostra melanosternon
ḏamarr'marama tie tightly
ḏamarrḏamarrdharra flare up in anger, tell off, stand up and answer back
damata tomato
ḏamaṯama tree--with inedible dark fruits, grows near billabongs
ḏamba light (weight)
dämba' damper Ext flour
ḏämbak boat
ḏambaŋani tree--lightweight wood used for spear shafts Indian Lantern Flower, Abutilon indica Hydrolea zeylanica Ludwigia perennis, L. octovalvis
ḏambaṯambayun tap--wood to see if hollow (for didgeridoo), bread (to see if cooked)
ḏämbu head, forehead Ext sandy hill
ḏämbugawumirr clan-nation
ḏämbuy' possum--male
ḏamiḻipa lizard Northern Blue-Tongue
ḏamuḏamurrk vine--edible fruit
ḏamura shellfish ?
ḏamurrk-ḏamurrk melon--wild, resembling wild cucumber but inedible Coccinea cordifolia (?)
ḏamurruŋ' brackish, salty (water) bitter, sour itchy
ḏanatjun be(come) stiff, taut, tight
dandaŋa tin, can
ḏandja inside hold (of ship) depths (of ocean)
ḏangapa(') tree--edible fruit, juice mixed with water or breast milk is used as medicine for earache and pussy eyes Geebung, Persoonia falcata
ḏangi bird White Cockatoo
ḏangi'yun nurse ( a child)
ḏan'parr bark of Stringybark--used for shelters and death shroud
ḏanybi fish Coral Cod, Cephalopholis miniatus Coral Trout, Plectropoma maculatum Coronation Trout, Variola louti
ḏaŋawuk shallow thin layer of soil over rocks
ḏaŋga calm (when the rain stops), fine
ḏaŋgalkthun fall (over, down), fly off (as leaves from tree, sparks in wind) Idm have bad thoughts, hear bad words going through one's head
ḏaŋgan fruit--bush melon
ḏäŋgan fat rolls (on stomach around waist) Witchetty Grub (edible larvae)
ḏaŋgultji(') bird Brolga, Grus rubiconda
ḏaŋgurraŋ(') lobster male Tropical Rock Lobster
ḏaŋgurraŋ fish--marine, small Mudskipper (?)
ḏäŋgu'ṯaŋgu stingray
ḏaŋ'mirriŋu crustacean--makes clacking noise Grant's Mantis Shrimp, Squilla granti Bay Lobster (?)
ḏaŋ'ṯaŋdhun make knocking noise
ḏap come together, meet e.g., two lines of people surrounding something
ḏäpthun sit, stay (somewhere for a long while, of many people talking or just sitting)
ḏapal(') Caterpillar (generic)
ḏapalan' lizard Blue-tongued Lizard
ḏapaliny' caterpillar--furry, stinging
ḏapman policeman
ḏapu(') vine--thorny good for firewood and firesticks edible fruit like sweet grapes Asparagus racemosa Smilax australis
ḏapurrurru' grasshopper
ḏar' hit
dar'yun sing (with clapstick accompaniment)
ḏaramu bone of lower leg
ḏar'man tree, especially its liquid which can be drunk when water is not available Dwarf Paperbark, Melaleuca viridiflora
ḏarpa tree
ḏarpum spear
ḏaruma shellfish--edible used traditionally as a water cup or carrier, with a string handle Brown Baler Shell, Melo umbiculatus Ext bald head, bald hill
ḏarwal bird--brown, lives in grass
ḏarwirr vine--creeper Lawyer Vine armband (made from this vine)
ḏärryun be(come) angry
ḏarra reed--freshwater, with orange flowers
ḏarra'yun dry up (of water)
ḏärra palm tree and its edible stalks Kentia Palm, Northern Kentia, Gronophyllum ramsayi (and/or) Cut-leaved Palm, Hydriastele wendlandiana
ḏärra fish Five-Banded Damsel Fish, Abudefduf saxatilis White-Banded Damsel Fish, Chrysiptera leucopoma
ḏarrabiya' bird Red-tailed Black Cockatoo
ḏarramu man, male, boy
ḏarraŋgi tree--like a coconut but the shell can also be eaten parts of the tree are washed ashore on Elcho, these are left to dry out in the sun before cooking
ḏarrapa(') fish Long-Nosed Trevally, Carangoides chrysophyrys Bludger, C. gymnostethus Herring Trevally, Alepes kalla
ḏarrarr'marama miss the mark, glance off
ḏarrarr'yun drag, pull along
ḏarrawk tree Ghost Gum, Whitebark, Eucalyptus papuana
ḏarrk bite
ḏarrŋḏarrŋdhirri bunches--be in (as a tree or banana plant laden with fruit)
ḏärrpa snake King Brown, Pseud e,o chis australis Western Brown Snake, Pseudonaja nuchalis
ḏärrtjal grass Imperata cylindrica, Coelorhachis rottboellioides
ḏarrtjalk clean clear (colour) good, not spoilt (beach, campsite)
ḏatthun spear, pierce
ḏaṯthun break off
ḏatam waterlily
ḏaṯitji tree--edible purple fruit
ḏäṯiwuy clan-nation (eastern Dl)
ḏatji sickness or disease--on skin, very itchy used to be fatal
ḏatji sacred sea creature (stingray or shark?)--lives in the Wessels
ḏatji mixture of flesh and fat or liver
ḏaw'yun break (down, up) get hurt
ḏaw'wun strip off (bark)
ḏäw' yam--growing on prostrate vine Ipomoea sp. (?)
ḏawa'yun go back (to have another look), look behind, -to the side, -over one's shoulder
ḏawaḏatj unequal in size or length
dawadawa bell
ḏawaḏawayun make fire
ḏawa-ḏawa'yun shake head in disagreement
ḏäwala healthy, well, recovered
ḏawalala' yam Ipomoea gracilis (?)
ḏawaṯawayun shake hit
däwin Darwin
ḏawu tree--its roots are used to make brown string for baskets Banyan, Ficus virens
ḏäwul none
ḏawurr hair--body feathers, down tiny hairs or bristles
ḏawurr bee, Honeybee (generic), Trigona spp.
ḏawuṯawu bird Tawny Frogmouth, Podargus strigoides
ḏay die stop, quit
ḏayun dry (up, out)
dayaŋgi loose
dayarra blame
daybuḻ table
ḏayḏay turtle--sub-adult Flatback Turtle
ḏaygurrgurr clan (western Da)
ḏaykun(') sun, day sunshine time(piece), watch, clock
ḏaymirri fish totemic sea monster--dangerous, sacred
ḏayparrandji bird--pigeon or dove with a reddish face
daywululu pretty, nice (f) White Woman, Asian lady, non-Aboriginal woman
ḏaywurrgurr clan
ḏe' itch(y)
ḏe' grasshopper
ḏibiḏibi few, little, small (amount)
ḏiḏi'marama tie up, bandage
ḏiḏiyun scratch
ḏiḏimu fish Parrotfish (generic), e.g: Blue Tusk Fish, Choeroden cyanodus Surf Parrotfish, Scarus fasciatus, Green-Finned Parrotfish, S. sordidus (etc.)
ḏiḏiny-garrpin warp sheet around dead body and entwine with rope
dedjat T-shirt
ḏikaḏika curly (hair)
ḏikala' plant--with yellow flowers, edible tubers, grows in swamp Cartonema sp.
ḏikarr(') fish Great Flying Fish, Cypselurus melanocercus Ext aeroplane, helicopter
ḏikarr dragonfly, damselfly
ḏikmandja sticky, thick (porridge, syrup)
ḏikṯik grasshopper--long-horned
ḏikṯik rememberance (of an unkindness) for later retribution
ḏikṯikŋaniŋ ant--stinging, makes one itchy
ḏiku unripe, raw, uncooked, not ready to eat in compounds dead, unconscious
ḏil'yun paint, apply (to the body)
ḏila tree Paperbark, Melaleuca nervosa cup or cooliman made from its wood
ḏilaḏilawŋ'gun rough--be, choppy (of lake or sea)
ḏilak edler(s), adult old (man) important, person in authority big Pl
-diḻi ALLative: to, towards, into
ḏelili bird Peewee, Mudlark, Australian Magpie-Lark, Grallina cyanoleuca
ḏilip tea-leaves
ḏilkam lizard Sand Goanna, Varanus sp.
ḏilkurr(u) old (man), leader big, important
ḏilkurruŋu yam Gardenia megasperma
ḏilminyin(') tree--rainforest creeper with edible red fruit Termite Tree, Ganophyllum falcatum Carallia brachiata
ḏilmurr louse--large, blackheaded (on humans, cattle, or dogs)
ḏiltthun poison (fish--by putting branches of certain trees into a small billabong)
ḏil'ṯil spot, freckle, dot
ḏilthan sting (of wound) tr dab with medicine, heal
ḏiltji back(bone) bush(land), outback, hinterland countryside land (as opposed to beach or sea)
ḏimdhun breastfeed, hold in the mouth (teat, cigarette, smoke)
ḏimarrkalaŋ' plant--with yellow flowers, edible tubers, grows in swamp Cartonema sp.
ḏimbuka(') container, dilly bag, closely woven narrow basket (for carrying wild honey) Ext coffin
ḏimiḏimirr shellfish Thaid Shell(s)
ḏimirr fin (of fish), spike (of stingray), prickle (of burr), thorn, barb, spine, hook
ḏimiṯimi tortoise--small young Emydura victoriae
ḏimiṯiminy insect--water Water Strider (?)
ḏimiṯimirr grass--with burrs
ḏiṉ'thun track
ḏinbal crocodile--saltwater
dindin cup
ḏinḏin' tree--paperbark, found in flood plains Melaleuca sp.
ḏinḏinŋaniŋ insect? Water Boatman
ḏingu tree--especially its nut Cycad Palm
ḏini side
ḏinmirr barb (of spear)
ḏeny scrotum and testicles
ḏiny'ṯiny kidney(s) Ext tree--with edible, kidney-shaped nuts Terminalia grandiflora
ḏeŋgiŋaniŋ shellfish--not eaten Haliotis squamata
ḏiŋirrk crack, snapping noise (as when a tree branch breaks)
ḏiŋ'ṯiŋdhun crackle (of fire)
ḏipthun chop
ḏipanguma hit, kill
ḏepina caterpillar
ḏipu herb--small
ḏirrun go back
ḏirryun feel pain, suffer be unhappy
ḏirr' fart--audible, bad air
ḏirramu man, male, boy husband
ḏirrathala boys--young, single (from initiation to manhood)
ḏirrgiyun saw
ḏirrirr wrinkles
ḏirrirr'yun crawl shift around (in sitting position)
ḏirriṯirri thorns, prickles spiked vine with hard branches and white flowers
ḏerritjŋu fish Freshwater Mullet, Liza dussumieri
ḏirriwili' crab--freshwater
ḏirrmala wind--north(east)
ḏirrŋ'gun pass wind, fart rude
ḏirrŋḏirrŋ bird Burdekin Duck
ḏirrŋiny'tjun row a boat with oar-locs (both sides together)
dirrpu(') rootfood similar to waterlily--small round, must be cooked Nymphoides indica Nymphaea violacea
ḏerruŋ carving
ḏirrwiḏirrwi(') stuck, caught, tied up, not free
ḏitthun fetch water
ḏiṯthun dip (for water), fetch water scoop up (honey, earth, etc.)
ḏe(')ṯi kidney (of animals) Ext tree--edible kidney-shaped nuts wood used for making smoking pipes Nut Tree, Native Almond, Canarium australianum, Terminalia grandiflora
ḏe'ṯiyun sting, hurt
detuŋ buffalo
ḏitj return
ḏitj hit
ḏetj grasshopper (generic) dragonfly, locust (?)
ditja(') teacher
ḏitjalk spear thrower spear--with pointed end used for fighting and hunting
detjat T-shirt
ḏitjay(') barb (of spear)
ḏitjkurr'yun flow, spurt (of liquids) shoot up, come flying up (to knock down insects)
ditjmanda vine--spiked with hard branches and white flowers
ḏitjpaŋgarr stingray--edible Spotted Eagle Ray, Aetobatus narinari
ḏitjpunuma massage, squeeze, knead
diwa'yun fire
ḏiwatj bird Green Pygmy-Goose
ḏiwirrkthun break, snap Pl
ḏiw'ṯiw bird Dollar-Bird
ḏiy hit
ḏiyamu shellfish--edible, found in shallow mud flats at river mouth Paphia hiantina
ḏiy'ṯiyyun ache, be painful (sharp pain in ears)
ḏeyṯiy'marama groom, look for head lice or fleas and squash them with fingernails
dhä mouth mouth of river door opening, orifice
dhaba' Got you!, I saw you before you saw me! (children's game)
dhabar dilly bag--sacred, contains bones, bills and feathers of birds and animals
dhabirrkpunuma finish off (ceremony, meeting), set period
dhaḏa leaves--burned, for cleansing ceremony
dhaḏalal dreamtime beings who played didjeridoos and created some stringybark dreamings
dhaḏudhaḏu rough country, hard terrain
dhaḏuluma seep, drip
dhaḏuyaḏu rough country, hard terrain (with many hills and rivers which is difficult to cross)
dhä(-)djarryun take possession of (a place)
dhaganda kangaroo--young antelopine, joey
dhagarr crossing (through jungle)
dhägir'yun punish, forbid
dhagirritj tree Persoonia falcata
dhäkaḏatj food--plant or vegetable (rootfoods, breads, cereals, fruits in contrast to meat, eaten for variety)
dhakaḏayanbi lizard--small and skinks (generic)
dhakal cheek, jaw Ext island fruit (whole)
dhakal(-)gaḏadjarr lizards--small and skinks (generic)
dhakatjtjun pout, be surly, not reply (face showing anger or sulkiness), hate, loathe (the sight of)
dhäkay taste, flavour feel(ing)
dhakiṉgiṉ axe with worn blade
dhäkiyarr sacred string (Bundhamarr)
dhaku vagina, vulva
dhakuḏa(') fish White Trevally, Golden Trevally, Caranx sp. Great Trevally, Caranx sexfasciatus
dhäkuḏak caterpillar
dhakururru shellfish--very nice Oyster sp.
dhäkurruma lean against
dhäkurrunhamarama lean against
dhäkuwal sacred shelter
dhäkuwarr sacred shelter
dhal' land (of plane, bird) sit down
dhaḻ' shut, closed (up) -tr stop up, block (up), dam (creek) cook (in an earthen oven)
dhala vagina
dhäla totem, "dreaming" totemic ancestor very important (culturally)
dhälakanŋu leaders of coroboree
dhaḻakarr space--open hole, opening Ext room window position
dhalaktharra drip
dhalaŋ blunt (knife) in the way (of line of vision), blocking the view
dhalaŋ'marama beach (a canoe/boat), bring to land
dhalapuḻ waterlily root--very large, found in deep water billabongs
dhaḻarr fish
dhaḻarra(') snake--big, yellowish King Brown (?)
dhalarrmuŋ tree/shrub--edible black fruit wood used to make firesticks Leea rubra
dhalarrŋaniŋ shellfish Razor Clam, Pinna menkei, Atrina pectina
dhaḻawan waves--huge roaring breakers
dhalawarraŋ calf (of leg)
dhäḻay together, side by side
dhalbirr equal, level, side by side, in a row
dhal'dhal\'yun drip
dhalgaṯpu turtle Green Turtle, Chelonia mydas
dhali they Pl
dhalimbu(') shellfish--edible Fluted Giant Clam, Tridacna squamosa
dhalinya them Pl-Object
dhaḻinyguma wash ashore (e.g., coconut, dead fish, canoe)
dhaliŋu their(s), for them Pl-Object
dhaḻirr'yun break (of waves on rocks, shore or boat)
dhälirri honey--wild
dhalithali(') gambling (game)
dhaliyarra(') wire--strong, inflexible, piece of metal
dhalkaram(a) bury (as food in sand to save it while going on further to hunt), plant
dhaḻ'kungama shut, lock
dhalkurr' milk (from breast only)
dhalkurrk tree--mangrove Avicennia marina
dhalmaṉḏa' fish--small, freshwater
dhalnyirr foam (on water)
dhalŋara shellfish--edible Ward's Volema, Volegalia wardiana
dhal'ŋarryun walk in mud
dhalŋurr young
dhalŋurr(') stone--large, unearthed as one digs in the ground rocky cliff or outcrop
dhalpa' march fly
dhalpi(') palm--with edible inner trunk, black berries eaten by emus Fan Palm, Sand Palm, "Cabbage Palm", Livistona humilis
dhalpiny plant--small
dhalpurr' lizard Two-lined Dragon
dhalthalŋa fish
dhäḻuk fish--small Freshwater Gudgeon
dhalulŋaniŋ shark Whale Shark, Rhinocodon typus
dhaḻuŋgu spear--with hooks on one side
dhalupunuma coil (rope)
dhalwaŋiny barren, childless (of older married woman)
dhaḻwaŋu clan-nation
dhalwarraŋ calf (muscle of lower leg)
dhalwaṯpu turtle Green Turtle, Chelonia mydas
dhalwirr equal, level, side by side, in a row
dhaḻwirrirri'yun slip down
dhalwirrtja tree/shrub--root edible only if prepared carefully Polynesian Arrowroot
dhalwur foolish, stupid
dhalyalyun run down (as tears)
dham'bun shut, close (off)
dhamak foul, dirty (language)
dhämalka fish--large
dhämalkuma pierce stab
dhamam' dinghy, raft, dugout canoe Ext aluminium boat, motorboat
dhämanar shared by two or more
dhamany'tjun grow, get bigger sprout new shoots (tree, plant)
dhamar stone--flat, for crushing
dhamarraṉdji surname
dhamba'yun stray, miss the way
dhambaḏiny snake Death Adder
dhambaku tobacco
dhambal to this (one)
dhambala landing (area for boat or barge), small inlet where canoe stands
dhambaṉiny snake Death Adder, Acanthophis antarcticus
dhambay together (with) one (which is shared)
dhambili card
dhambiḻpiḻ didgeridoo
dhämbuḻ stars that follow the morning star
dhambur sand sandhill
dhamburrbaḏatj uneven, out of line
dhamburru big, fat
dhamburru drum
dhamiḻiny lizard Northern Blue-Tongue
dhaminy bird Royal Spoonbill, Platalea regia, Yellow-billed Spoonbill, Platalea flaripes
dhamuku canoe
dhamul shoot (of plant)
dhamulŋ'gun grow
dhamuḻuku'yun hold in one's mouth
dhamuḻuŋguḻ'yun hold in one's mouth (with tight lips)
dhamun chin
dhamunumun(') chin
dhä-murrnyi'mirri bird Plains Turkey
dhämurruŋ middle of fight
dhan'yun (?) touch
dhanal they Pl
dhanaliny them (all) Pl, object of action
dhanaliŋgu their(s), for/of them Pl
dhanaliŋguḻ(i) to(wards) them Pl
dhanaliŋguŋ from/by them Pl
dhanaliŋgura with them Pl
dhanaliŋguru from them Pl
dhanaliŋgurumurru about them Pl
dhanaliŋguruy concerning them (all) Pl
dhanaliway themselves
dhanara order, request to go
dhanay' bark of Paperbark--used for traditional torches or as kindling
dhanbaṉiny snake
dhaṉbiri shark--not eaten Hammerhead
dhanbul morning star
dhanburama spirit
dhanda anthill, termite mound
dhandigulk tree Wild Cassava, Wild Cotton Tree, Cochlospermum fraseri
dhandurruŋ horn (of buffalo, cattle) Ext handlebar(s)
dhäṉdhaṉŋu bad (person), lawless, quarrelsome, irresponsible, spoilt
dhandharr shellfish--edible
dhangapa' tree--with edible fruit Persoonia falcata
dhangi fruit
dhangi'yun embrace, cuddle, hug carry (firewood, child) on one's hip
dhaniya(') container--Paperbark (for water or food) native cup
dhän'pala shellfish--edible Geloina coaxans (larger)
dhäṉu hollow in land (natural or man-made, and its accompanying projection) gully, trench, steep drop, cliff face valley Ext? jaw
dhanygurr ground--low lying
dhaŋ'thun snatch (as a fish grabbing bait)
dhäŋa' fire--starting by itself, spontaneous combustion burning tinder
dhaŋaḻaŋarr' gills
dhäŋali on the edge
dhaŋalkkuma make a fire stoke
dhaŋaŋ(') full many, lots, plenty (of)
dhaŋapaŋi midnight (middle of the night to about 3 a.m.)
dhaŋaran' root (of tree)
dhaŋariny trouble
dhaŋarr froth, foam white crest of a wave edge of the water (where it laps the shore)
dhaŋarra(') flower--white (of Stringybark), blooms July-Sept, makes good honey
dhaŋbar'yun ? show off
dhaŋbiḏi'yun go around (something and sit down)
dhaŋdhaŋdhun float on top of water (of crocodile, log, leaf, not boat) Ext swim
dhaŋga calm (when the rain stops)
dhaŋga(-)ḏirr'yun hurt, feel pain, suffer, be unhappy sore (as skin near a boil or stretched tight)
dhäŋgaḻ rock
dhaŋgam(a) hang, be suspended
dhaŋgawar'yun fall in (a hole)
dhaŋgi(') tree and its edible fruit, white flowers, bark used as fish poison Bush Mango, Billy-goat Plum, Cocky-apple tree, Wild Quince, Planchonia careya
dhaŋgiṯthun chop
dhäŋgu meat, flesh (as opposed to fat)
dhaŋu this, here collective name for Dhaŋu dialects
dhaŋumbal to this (one)
dhaŋu'mi language--collective name for variety spoken by Ga:lpu', Golamala, Lamami, Ŋaymil, Rirratjiŋu, and Wangurri clans
dhaŋuniya yam
dhaŋuny this person object of verb
dhaŋuny(') story, tale, message
dhäŋuru after (that), then
dhaŋurrtha(') isolated, uninhabited bad place to live (no trees for fire, away from other people)
dhaŋutha fire, firewood
dhapthuman take one's picture, photograph
dhapa heel
dhapala outside, away (from a point of reference)
dhapalan lizard Northern Blue-Tongue
dhapalany(') caterpillar
dhapaḻk star
dhäpan cloud
dhapaṉbal flat flat stone on which nuts are pounded
dhäpanga cloud
dhapara fish Spotted Butterfish, Scatophagus argus Vermiculated Spinefoot, Siganus vermiculatus Archer Fish, Toxotes chatareus
dhäpara stump (tree)
dhäpark empty, "broke", destitute, without (food, money, anything)
dhäparŋ(') broke, destitute, without food or money, empty-handed, unsuccessful empty (house) all alone (person)
dhaparrmarr roots (growing exposed above the ground or in water)
dhaparrŋmarrŋ roots (which grow above ground or in water)
dhapathuŋ(') shoes, footwear
dhapi(') foreskin circumcision, initiate for or from circumcision ceremony
dhapinya generous, benevolent, kind-hearted
dhapirri pillow
dhapirripirri dizzy, staggering (as when drunk)
dhapirrk even, level, well-balanced, orderly, good-looking (product)
dhäpithapi fish Batfish sp.
dhäpiyalk half
dhapul'yun nod in agreement move, wriggle
dhapuwal cloud
dhäpu(-)waŋa yawn sigh
dhäpuyŋu clan-nation (eastern Dl)
dhar rain
dhar'yun refuse
dhara anus
dhärak spear with no blade, toy spear
dharaŋan understand, recognise
dharapul place (e.g, take someone's place, in place of another), "spot", position, customary residence (this area is taboo after a person\'s death)
dhararrman push
dharaw(') bark of Paperbark--used as torch, tinder, or kindling
dharawarrwarr jellyfish
dharawukkuma push (boat) off shore, move out from shore
dharayŋu half
dhardhar'yun move (slowly or as water on side of rock) begin to move shift (from one place to another)
dhariŋdhun swing (from tree to tree, on rope, not on swing)
dharirr nail (of finger or toe), claw
dharirr knife
dharktharkkuma put inside (a bag, basket or tin)
dharŋgurr voice, word
dharpa tree, bush (generic) (piece of) wood, stick (grasses), riku' (thin stick)
dharpum(a) spear, pierce (as nose), poke (e.g., for turtle eggs) badly scratch up the surface of Ext inject sew, stitch (clothes), weave (dillybag)
dharthar swell (made by propeller), wake, trail (left by turtle in water)
dhar'thar pressure, force
dhäruk word(s) language, dialect speech, discussion, advice, message
dhärul cloud from north
dharwa hip(s) (real or classificatory)
dharr see (something in the distance) Ext think hard or seriously
dharr'yun stop, prevent
dharr'yun break (bone)
dharra' dead person or spirit, corpse (Rit) paperbark coffin
dhärra stand (upright) be (in water)
dharraḏa still, steady (not moving), straight calm (not angry)
dharradharr' harmful substance found in or near water
dharrakanmatjwuy open sea near Groote Eylandt
dharrakay(') child--third (or youngest, last in family)
dharramaka dog name
dharramu leg--upper (especially its bone)
dhärranhayŋu eternal, (standing) forever
dharraŋgulk tree/shrub--with edible root and seeds (must be carefully removed as the pods contain stinging hairs) bark is used to make string and containers hairs/dust in seed pod used as poison or an irritant sap used as a sexual lubricant Red Flowering Kurrajong,
dharrarr'yun slide (around, off), glance (as spear off target)
dharratha bird Mangrove Heron, Butorides striatus Black Bittern, Dupetor flavic i,o llis (?)
dharratharra Dry Season (when it is chilly and there are plenty of yams and bush food), cold weather (May to August)
dharrathir(') little bit (e.g., some out of the whole lot or a small amount to get along with, e.g., morning tea), impermanent
dharraw' tree Quinine Bush, Petalostigma pubescens
dharrawaḏay firesticks, firedrill tree--from which firesticks can be made Premna acuminata, P. obtusifolia
dharrawaḏay(') fish Yellow Perchlet, Ambassis marianus Bony Bream, Nematolosa come Spotted Herring, Harengula koningsbergeri
dharrawany' tree--white-barked eucalypt with large nuts
dharrawaṯa fish immature Mangrove Jack Pikey Bream, Acanthopgrus berda (?)
dharray care for, mind, take care (of), look after
dharrayini rootfood
dharrbuma pile up
dharrbunuma tempt, push, entice
dharrdharryun scrape, pick, clean out (with a stick)
dharrgadharrgayun run along (goanna)
dharrgar stone, rock
dharri-dharri bird Seagull sp.
dharrima buy
dhärriŋ stones--used by Macassans for cooking
dharripa(') trepang, sea slug--large, found in mud
dharrk spear, pierce, stab
dharrkaliny'thun carry under one's arm
dharrkiny bird Chicken Hawk
dharrktharrk rough
dharrktharrkthun fly off (spark)
dharrku'yun put straight into mouth
dharrku(-)lululyunmarama (?) drown (a person), sink (a boat)
dharrmun smell
dharrŋan shellfish--edible
dharrpal taboo, sacred, secret important, special (Rit) big many
dharrpan hide (something)
dharrpitj side
dharrpitj forked sticks that support something
dharrtthun poke (e.g., a stick into beehive to obtain honey)
dharr'tharryun crush bones
dhärru bushfood
dhärru Islanders (people who wear laplap and flowers in their hair)
dharruma rootfood--tiny succulent creeper found on sand dunes Portulaca oleracea
dharrumba toss about (canoe on water) Idm intoxicated, "full" drunk, "pissed"
dharruŋgu(') prison, gaol
dharrupuŋ(') telescope
dharruyŋa knife handle
dharrwa many lots (of) often
dharrwar rock, stone
dharrwaṯthun walk purposefully
dharrwunuma tempt, push, entice
dharryunmirri bash oneself in grief
dhaṯthun dress (up), clothe
dhatam(') waterlily--found in billabongs, especially its roots which can be peeled and eaten raw Nymphaea sp, e.g., gigantea
dhatpiryun become resigned (to)
dhäṯu sunset
dhatul' torch--paperbark
dhatthatthun run--to catch up with, take off (of bird), taxi (as plane), jump (as in sports)
dhathala ready and waiting
dhathar'yun move
dhathathayun shiver
dhawaḏa beach
dhawaḏatj wrong, out of line or place, improper, unorderly, crooked a straggling group (not in single file)
dhawakay fish Black Spinefoot, Siganus spinus
dhawal place of birth, homeland (a) named place
dhawal far, distant
dhawal'yun search
dhawar leg--lower
dhawar'yun finish (off), cease, end disappear
dhawaraŋ(') hole (in ground, roof, etc.)
dhawarkthun ?come to nothing
dhäwarra wide, broad
dhawarrak beard, moustache, whiskers root of yam or vegetable food term used by someone when referring to some of your grand-relatives
dhäwarrawuy clan (extinct)
dhawaṯ come out, go out, emerge, be set free
dhawatjiri stingray--edible
dhawirritjpirritj cut--unevenly
dhawirrkpunuma finish off (ceremony, meeting, set period of time)
dhawitŋu generous (person who gives readily)
dhawitjan through this (one, way, means) on this side
dhawu' promise promised (bestowed, betrothed) wife
dhäwu(') story, word, news, information message meeting speech
dhawuḏumunun caterpillar
dhäwul nothing, none
dhawuḻuŋgul noise of a crowd (e.g., people talking), croaking (frogs), chattering (monkeys)
dhawunhaŋ' none, nothing
dhawuṉburrk fish Spangled Perch
dhawuŋu savour arising from meat cooking rising smoke, steam
dhawupun aflame, be on fire
dhawuru from this (one) TIME here, now
dhawurrŋa interrupt
dhawurruŋga young, new (car), fresh (flower) young man or woman
dhawuṯ rise (up) fly (away), take off
dhäwuṯi spear blade--short, broad, made of iron
dhawuthuwa old person--very Idm drunkard
dhawuyu smell of meat cooking
dhäya stand
dhayaḻa loose, open(ed)
dhayapthun fall off
dhayarrk fibre(s) prepared from bark or roots to make string and armbands
dhayawu stingray--edible
dhayi ant--small, green
dhayka female, woman, girl
dhaykum abuse, argue with someone (nastily, cursing and swearing)
dhaykuŋ tree Buchnera linearis, B. tetrogona
dhayuŋan give into one's care, let (someone) have, entrust, send
dhäyurrumirr(i) wrapped up, sealed, packaged
dhay'yi this
dhay'yimirr language--collective name for variety spoken by Dhalwaŋu and Djarrwark clans
dhäyurru complete(ly), full(y) in bulk (e.g., buying food by the carton)
-dhi ANAPHORIC marker: a kind of EMPHasis referring to something already mentioned, "that very one"
-dhi- INCHoative: becoming, getting (becoming smaller, getting dark)
dhika somewhere, something (around here) unspecified, unrealised very (much, many) EMPHatic
dhikawitjan through/about something/somewhere
dhil'yun unable to walk
dhili yes or no? TAG question or interrogative marker
dhiliŋiny breast(s) milk
dhilip tea
dhilipiṉiŋgirrk mistletoe
dhiliwurrk smoke, tobacco
dhelŋ tongue
dhimurru(') east wind fruit of White Berry Bush
dhiṉ'thun track (down, as an animal or person) follow (the meaning or point)
dhindi(') shrub "Cane Grass", Phragmites karka short, light Cane spear with Ironwood head
dhindhin tree Melaleuca viridiflora
dhinimbu(') fish--mackerel & tuna Spanish Mackerel spp, Scomberomorus munroi, S. commerson, S. semifasciatus (etc.) Queensland School Mackerel, Cybium queenslandicus Yellowfin Tuna, Thunnus tonggol Big-Eyed Tuna, T. albacares (etc.)
dhinir'yun bump (e.g., tree to make fruit fall), knock, brush (against)
dhiŋ' woman
dhiŋgam(a) die
dhiŋgi high (mountain, building)
dhipthun carve (up) chop a mark
dhipal(a) hither, this direction, to this/here
dhipali hither, that direction (near us), to that/there (not far)
dhipmirri anteater Short-beaked Echidna, Tachyglossus aculeatus acanthion
dhipuŋur(u) hence, from this/here/there (not far)
dhiryun fail, be unsuccessful, not achieve (what one set out to do), make no impression (e.g., chopping with a blunt axe)
dhiriw' tree Alphitonia excelsa
dhirmbuk rootfood--small, carrot-like
dhirr'yun disturb wake up
dhirraŋ root corm of Waterlily Nymphaea violacea, N. gigantea
dhirri genitalia
dhirri three (mainly in telling time or counting)
dhirrimuk close together (weave of basket or mat), crowded, in a huddle
dhirrimul stone--egg-shaped (white or bluish) used for hitting or crushing (cycad nuts, grain) (set of) grindstones Ext hammer
dhirripala downward, downriver, toward the coast
dhirripi inside (stationary, not moving) (Rit) down, below, downriver, near the coast
dhirrirriŋgitj tree--small, has a strong smell and cannot be used for firewood used medicinally (?) Boobialla, Myoporum acuminatum
dhirrithirri g-string, loincloth (old native attire made of string or grass)
dhirrkthirrk rough (surface) scabies, itchy skin rash (e.g., prickly heat, measles)
dhirrkthirrk lizard Spiny-tailed goanna, Varanus acanthurus
dhiṯthun scoop up, gather in one's hands, have one\'s hands full (of) dip (for water), get or fetch water
dhe'thiyun scratch
dhethuŋgan put (into)
dhiwkthiwk wet, dirty, mucky
dhiwuk shellfish Razor Shell, Razor Clam
dhiyakal(a) hither, to/with this (person)
dhiyaki of/for that (near us)
dhiyakiy about this PRS
dhiyak(u) of this
dhiyakuŋ(u) from this (PRS)
dhiyakuy about this (one, place)
dhiyakuy dialect group (Ritharrŋu, Wa:gilak, etc.)
dhiyal(a) here
dhiyali here, there (near us)
dhiyaŋ with this, by this PRS
dhiyaŋi with this, using this/that (near us)
dhiyaŋu with this, using this
-dhu ERGative: the actor of a transitive verb INSTrument: with a gun, by boat
-dhu ALLative: to, towards, into
dhu- BASE former
dhu will, should, ought to, must (FUTure, hortative or obligation marker)
dho store, shop
dhuba'yun spit
dhubudhubuyun cooped up, stay in something (unable to come out)
dhubuḏu' short
dhubukun carry over the shoulders or on the back
dhubuŋ'thun splash (as fish jumping, rain falling)
dhuburr custom, law, rule, way (of life or doing things), business (as in "That's my business")
dhuḏakthun act, pretend, imitate, follow, learn
dhuḏi bottom, buttocks, "bum" (especially bony area above) behind Ext end base, part of spearhead (where it joins the shaft) root (of tree) stern (of canoe or boat)
dhuḏi voice
dhuḏipirri belt--made from parrot feathers (sacred--relating to Creation Sisters)
dhuḏitj late, last backwards
dhuḏuṯthun sink (in, under), penetrate
dhuḏuthuḏu bird--owl Tawny Frog Mouth
dhuka path, track, road, street way, means
dhoka still, only, just
dhoka steps, stairs, ladder
dhoka'yun annoy, torment, aggravate
dhukaḻ(') fish Long Tom, "Needle Tooth", Long-finned Garfish, Euleptorhamphus viridis
dhukarr path, road, street, track(s), footprints way, means "calling", vocation, path in life (someone to come), hope
dhukaya tide--low
dhoku in vain, unsuccessfully
dhoku' tree--with crooked trunk, found on old sand dunes near the coast Paperbark, Melaleuca leucadendron
dhukul tree Soap Tree, Acacia holosericea
dhukumul rain--heavy, constant
dhukun(') rubbish, litter, trash
dhukuray shellfish--edible Lined Nerite, Nerita lineata
dhuḻyun hit, hammer, build, kick (tree to make fruit fall)
dhuḻ hit, hammer, build, kick (tree to get fruit down)
ŋayaŋu-warryun making effort
dhol dust, mud
dhulaku kangaroo adult male Arnhem Land Euro, Macropus robustus woodwardi
dhuḻaŋ bark painting
dhuldhul covered, hidden in burrow (as goanna)
dhulgu tree--large paperbark with straight trunk, found on riverbanks, bark is excellent for making canoes, shelters, and dillybags form of Melaleuca leucadendron or Kapok (?)
dhuli'na ear Ext bottle, jar
dhuḻkitjŋu bee--its hive is found right at the top of the tree honey is thick and pollen balls sweet
dhulku(') sore
dhulkuthulku covered over
dhulmadhulma soft (to the touch)
dhulmarr house
dhulmu stomach, belly Ext middle (of sea) inside (of boat or bucket) billabo
dhulmu deep (water, grass, bush) green (as colour of deep sea)
dholŋ(') ladder
dholŋ(') bladder, bowel
dhulŋuŋu belonging to someone, one's own (possessions), rightful (may be used as one wants to)
dhulpurru root
dhul(')thul fat--pleasantly so (person, animal)
dhuḻ'thuḻ spots, holes
dhuḻ'thuḻa shellfish--not eaten Pearly Nautilus, Nautilus Shell, Nautilus pompilius alumnus
dhulu(') spear, pointed stick bush/shrub--from which this is made
dhoḻu mud
dhuluḏur(') season--end of the Dry (especially the hot, humid pre-Wet buildup, when black clouds appear on the horizon, there is distant thunder, and plants develop new shoots)
dhulukuṉuŋ blunt (not sharp)
dhulumburrk Waterlily, Nymphoides indica, Nymphaea violacea
dhulumbuyŋu fish
dhulundhurrk tree Nut Tree
dhuḻuŋ bark painting
dhuḻuŋu fish Mullet
dhuluŋurr'yuwan drop, lose (something)
dhulupun billabong--with muddy banks and waterlilies
dhuḻupurr deep (of sea) great depths of the ocean
dhuḻurrk fish Sand Whiting, Sillago ciliata Trumpeter Whiting, S. maculata Stout Whiting, S. robusta
dhulwa spear
dhulwaṉ fern
dhulwir rust
dhulwir' tree Atalaya hemiglauca (?)
dhulwu(') tree Paperbark sp.
dhum'bun hop (along), bounce
dhumaḻ Cycad nut/fruit
dhomala(') sail cloth flag
dhumar wasp, hornet (generic?) large non-agressive wasp with a bright blue body--lives in wood, laying eggs on the inside of trees Flower Wasp, Thynnidae sp.
dhumara sacred place
dhumbal'yun know not, be ignorant (of), confused, not understand lose track
dhumbala seat, crosspiece (in canoe)
dhumbilaŋ dive (into)
dhumbudhumbu' tree Sandalwood, Santalum lanceolatum
dhumbuḻ' short
dhumbulaŋ dive (into)
dhumbuṉ short
dhumitji write writing
dhum'paṉa rootfood
dhum'thum wallaby Agile Wallaby
dhumuḏal spear (gaditjirri gara)
dhumuk thick (bush, jungle) blunt closed, blocked up dead-end
dhumuḻu' tree--with long nuts Bloodwood, Eucalyptus polycarpa
dhumumu(') tree--inedible fruit Quinine Bush, Petalostigma pubescens
dhumungur(') avoidance relationship grandchild (in opposite moiety) FZDDC
dhumunumun tree stump
dhumurr'yun kick
dhon chop
dhoṉa(') stick--for digging up yams
dhunarra go--down, descend, come down (from)
dhunbuṉuŋ beach
dhoṉḏa(') plant--tree orchid(s) often found on cycads juice is mixed with clay and used as undercoat in bark-painting or for painting people Dendrobium, Dendrobium dicuphum Cymbidium canaliculatum var. barretti Bloodroot, Haemodorum sp.
dhuṉdhuṉ unable to do something (e.g., retrieve stolen goods)
dhungal hand, palm of hand, finger(s), fist Ext five
dhunguruk yam Curculigo ensifolia
dhungurrk nape, back of neck Ext beginning of creek
dhuni ochre
dhuni' shelter--small, ceremonial
dhuniya go down
dhuṉ'ku shellfish--edible Lined Nerite
dhuṉ'thuṉdhun ache, pain, throb
dhun'tjirr good at (hunting or gathering), clever
dhunukmirriyama point out (something), show the way, warn, foretell
dhoṉukthirri increase in volume (of smoke)
dhunuku thigh, lap
dhuṉum fish Sleepy Cod, Mudfish, Oxyeleotris lineolatus
dhunupa straight (away) correct, true, proper right (-handed, side)
dhuṉuwapthun fall (over)
dhonyin snake Javan File Snake
dhoŋ thong(s)
dhuŋa know not, ignorant not have a right (to), can not, unable (to)
dhuŋdhuŋ stupid
dhuŋga' bandicoot (especially young ones)
dhuŋgarra year
dhuŋgul soil--good
dhuŋguḻ'yun ablaze, be on fire
dhuŋguparri lid of a bottle
dhuŋgur'yun light a fire, kindle
dhoŋulu deaf (and dumb and/or blind ?) Ext one who doesn't listen, one who always misunderstands
dhuŋumirr(i) sick
dhuŋuŋaniŋ(') shellfish--generic for all Limpets and Siphons, not eaten Barnacle, Northern Star Limpet, Collisellina paropsis
dhupthun spit
dhupal they (two) Dl
dhupaliny them (two) Dl, object of action
dhupaliŋgu their(s), for/of them (two) Dl
dhupaliŋguḻ(i) to(wards) them (two) Dl
dhupaliŋguŋ by/from them (two) Dl
dhupaliŋgura with them (two) Dl
dhupaliŋguru from them (two) Dl
dhupaliŋgurumurru about them (two) Dl
dhupaliŋguruy concerning them (two) Dl
dhupaliŋguway themselves
dhopaŋ sail (fixed for a strong wind)
dhupiḏitj bird Mistletoe Bird
dhupitjmirri fish
dhupthup sandfly mosquito (generic)
dhupugaḏi shellfish Monodonta labio
dhupuma look (upwards at--especially in hunting for honey) Ext look forward to
dhupuma residential college at Gove, closed in 1982
dhupuṉ hollow tree or log
dhupuŋiniŋ shellfish Monodonta labio
dhupuwaḏi shellfish--edible Euchelus atratus
dhuryun go down, descend, alight (as bird on tree), float (as leaves or paper in wind), sink (under water)
dhurun move very slowly crawl
dhurili clan (western Dl) composing a phratry of approximately nine clans
dhurili clan
dhuririŋu pancreas
dhuriwiriŋu rectum
dhurkthurk fish--perch Black-striped Grunter
dhurŋ'thun pull in (as head of turtle or snail into shell), shrink from, withdraw, draw (in, out)
dhurpu buttocks Ext end stern (of boat or canoe) behind, last
dhurpuwaḏi shellfish Euchelus atratus Turbo pethalatus (?)
dhoru coral ("lumpy" type)
dhurudhuruŋgun ache (of body), have aches (after overworking)
dhoruk cavity, tooth-decay white ants, wood-borer rottenness Ext germs
dhurukul shelter--made of leaves, bush humpy
dhurumarra bird
dhurr give
dhurryun stamp feet (in dance or ceremony, as when imitating snake in coroboree)
dhurr'yun laugh
dhurr'marama pile, stock up
dhorraŋ nut--inner seed of Cycad fruit
dhurrapuŋa First Creek (on Elcho Island)
dhurray' eel Freshwater Eel, Anguilla sp.
dhurrguyun shake, bump
dhurri(') faeces, excrement, "shit" ḎvulgarṈ entrails fluid containing bees eggs (found in hives)
dhurritjini hunter of turtle
dhurrkama chop (down)
dhurrkay surname
dhurrmuk rain--constant, heavy
dhurrmuruḻ' fireplace, remains of an old fire, hot ashes (and sand)
dhurr(')muṯthun dive, jump into water
dhurrŋiny'mirri trouble--big: war, pestilence cause of great worry
dhurrpa(') tracks (e.g. of snake), imprint footprints (not in (Rit))
dhurrpinda shrub--edible berry Green Plum, Wild Plum
dhurrthurryun cover (up--with cloth, one's tracks) Ext deceive
dhurr'thurryun gather together
dhurrtji(') tree--wood is used for yamsticks and making artifacts yellow inner bark used as rubbing medicine for sores mothers must not stay near a fire when this wood is burned as it causes their milk to dry up Wattle, Acacia (?) leptocarpa
dhorru whole, complete (in one piece)
dhurrulŋu place (hillock) where dirt has been piled by a goanna or bandicoot digging
dhurrum' bird Beach Thick-Knee
dhurruman(') firestick trees used for firesticks, especially Premna spp.
dhurruman(') fish--small, freshwater
dhurrumanŋiniŋ snake--found in rocky terrain
dhurrumbuku' verandah
dhurrur'yun cough
dhurrurruyun run fast ponder do a specific action in a dance
dhurrurruŋgitj tree Sandalwood
dhurrurruŋgitj shrub Jacksonia dilatata
dhurrwara mouth, lip(s) opening Ext door lid ends (of rope)
dhurr(-)wuṯthun dive, run and jump into water, fall (head first) into a hole
dhut sit (down)
dhoṯ folded, wrapped up weak, sick(ly)
dhoṯay(') shellfish Mud Ark, Corculum cardisga (?)
dhoṯu tired, weary, wanting to sleep
dhuthunuŋu trunk (of tree)
dhotj closed burrow (mound of earth where animal has burrowed)
dhotju work
dhuwa moiety--patrilineal
dhuwakthun tie
dhuwaka'yun look for turtles and turtle eggs
dhuwakuṉḏitj Dhuwa clan-nations--all together
dhuwaḻyun keep on doing something, be persistent
dhuwala this, here (is)
dhuwala'mirri language--collective name for variety spoken by Gumatj, Gupapuyŋu (Birrkili, Daygurrgurr, Guyamirrilili, Wubulkarra), Madarrpa (-monuk), Makarrwanhalmirri, and Maŋgalili clans
dhuwalaŋuwuy about this, from here
dhuwalatjan go this way (path, route)
dhuwali this, here (is) that, there (near us)
dhuwalil to that (one, near us)
dhuwaliŋuru from that (one, near us)
dhuwaliŋuwuy about this/that (near us)
dhuwal'mirr language--collective name for variety spoken by Da:tiwuy, Dhapuyŋu, Djambarrpuyŋu (Dhurili, Guyula, Wutjara), Djapu, Liyagawumirr (Buyuyugululmirr), Liyagalawumirr, Marrakulu, and Marraŋu clans
dhuwalwitjan go this way
dhuwan that, there (near us, not far)
dhuwanydjika cigarette
dhuwaŋ prawn
dhuwarrpuma flood make a mark in the ground
dhuwarrwarr sunset
dhuway husband (real or classificatory), brother-in-law ZH , sister-in-law ZHZ first-cousin (in opposite moiety) FZC "mate"
dhuwaya this, here
dhuwi brother-in-law mate
dhowirr tree Paperbark, Melaleuca leucadendron
dhuwirriya sea at Yirrkala
dhuwurr custom, law, rule, behaviour, way (of life or doing things), (one's own) "business"
dhuwuṯay shellfish Mud Ark
dhuykun(') female (of any species), woman, wife female goanna
dhuyu sacred, secret, holy, taboo (forbidden or secret knowledge) attractive, clean, tidy
dhoyu whole, complete
dhuyumu tree/shrub--edible part (?) Timonius timon
dhuyuwurk tree Grewia retusifolia (?)
-dja OPPosition or EMPHasis marker
djä'yun suck or eat (syrup with a grass spoon)
djabakalaŋ lizard Blue-Tongue
djabarryun come Pl
djabarrkthun preach
djäbu soap
djäbur avoidance relationship: mother-in-law's brother WMB , "poison cousin" MMBS
djaḏayun make a spark (with a firestick), operate a firestick
djaḏak bee--honeybee, and its "girl sugarbag" Trigona sp.
djaḏal'yun throw spear at random (at people to frighten them or attract attetnion into muddy water hoping to catch fish)
djaḏaw' break (of day), dawn, sunrise be daylight
djaḏiwitjibi clan (Djinang)
djaḏula grass--very sharp special for Jam Vetiveria elongata (or?) Spinifex longifolius (?)
djädjak tree--with edible shoots Fan Palm, Livistona loriphylla
djäga care for, take care of, look after
djagadjagayun wriggle, kick legs (as baby when crying, child in tantrum)
djaguḻ'nani bird Spangled Drongo
djagurr'gurr plant--with small, reddish edible root portions Eleocharis sphacelata
djaka(') size, height, length long, tall
djäka care for, take care of, look after
djakama bunion, inflamed swelling on foot a healed sore
djakapurra Singapore
djakaruŋ(') container made of Stringybark (used for shellfish, etc.), native cup or bowl Ext billy(can), tin
djakaṯthun stretch (up, standing on tiptoes), crane (neck trying to see over crowd)
djäkminy Goulburn Island
djaktjin injection, "shot"
djakuḻuḻu(') anthill, antbed--tall and white (home for animals such as lizards, snakes, scorpions and echidnas)
djakurrŋa water--sacred
djakurruma call someone by relationship term
djäl like, want, desirous (of), love GEN
djäḻ' holey, cut up, riddled with holes or cuts
djala shellfish flesh
djala'yun give away, distribute
djaḻa coccyx (bone at bottom of spine)
djalaḏi' plant with edible root swellings Cayratia trifolia
djaḻadjaḻa'yun stagger, walk unsteadily
djalagu' plant--edible, grows in water Aponogeton elongatus
djalakaritj spear--with long thin steel prongs, used for fishing
djaḻaktjaḻak plant--floating freshwater weed with yellow flowers Utricularia aurea
djaḻaḻ(')yun hurry, rush, run (to help or holding a spear)
djalalayun crawl
djalamat foot(print), toe(s)
djalamiṯa bird--hawk with hovering habits Peregrine Falcon (?)
djalanda shrub--with yellowish fruit in rainy season
djalaṉarramirr stingray--edible
djalaŋgi flag
djalarrpa kangaroo female Arnhem Land Euro, Macropus robustus woodwardi
djalatuŋ shoes, footwear
djalatuŋ sinker
djalathaŋ(') south (wind--used by Macassans to sail from Australia back to Ujung Pandang)
djaḻatjaḻa(') tree--small used as a medicine for paplomas on feet Swamp Banksia, B. dentata B. papuana (?) stick with bark smoothed off (for putting in nose)
djalawa concentration putting a flag up
djaḻburr'yun splash, dive walk in water up to one's ankles
djaḻi armband--used in Dhuwa ceremonies jungle vine--leaves used as armbands Flagellaria indica
djali' wet
djalik wet
djalili' bird--seabird sp.
djalim sell
djalinda cloth, towelling, sheet, sail
djalk throw (away, down, out), toss, discard waste (money) Pl or uncountable nouns
djaḻkarr eye, seed Ext well, waterhole sweetheart
djaḻkarr'yun flash, shine
djäḻki(') snake (generic)
djalkiri foot footprint root (of tree) Ext thong(s) wheel
djalkuminy urine, "piss" ḎrudeṈ
djalkurrk orchid--growing on trees its juice is used to prime bark for painting Dendrobium dicuphum etc.
djalma yam--round, must be soaked before eating Dioscorea sativa var. rotunda (?)
djalma grasshopper
djälŋ grass Spinifex, Triodia sp.
djalŋiny leech (fresh-water)
djalpaṯ axe--stone, short
djalpinyŋu yam--large, hairy, found in boggy freshwater areas Curculigo ensifolia, Gardenia megasperma
djalpurr(') gullet--end of end part of intestines of turtle
djalpurr(') grass Blady Grass, Imperater cylindrica
djaḻpurrun plunge into water
djaltjal bundle, pile, heap, roll
djaḻ'tjaḻyun masturbate
djälulu' fruit Wild Grape, Ampelocissus and/or Cissus sp.
djaḻumbu log--hollow, ceremonial
djäluŋ lines on a flag
djalwarra trousers
djalwarrwarr bushes--dense clump small trees
djaḻwurr'yun wade into shallow water splash (about, through) water up to one's ankles
djam tree Hibiscus sabdariffa
djama child, baby
djäma work, make, do
djamaḻaka fish Moon Fish
djamandarr plant
djamanbarraṉ little Pl
djamandjaman little Pl children young animals minnows (etc.)
djamarriny hair (of head) leaf
djamarrkuḻi(') children Ext students, pupils
djamawurr little Pl children young animals minnows (etc.)
djamba shelter--made of bark
djambaka(') tin, billycan, pannikin roofing iron steel
djambaḻ oven--stone, antbed used for cooking
djambaḻak fish Freshwater Eel-tailed Catfish, "Nailfish"
djambaŋ tree, fruit Tamarind, Tamarindus Indic us,a (Rit) small plant (?)
djambapa(') snail--not eaten, used as blade for slicing yams Land Snail, Albersia sp. Freshwater Snail (?)
djambarrpuyŋu clan-nation (western Dl)
djambatj good at (hunting, gathering, fishing), successful Ext expert, quick, smart, intelligent, acute, alert, clever
djambayaŋ gathering (e.g., for sports) ḎarchaicṈ prayer
djambi change, exchange
djämbutj star--morning, Venus
djämbutj sorcerer
djambuwal tornado, waterspout, strong whirlwind star associated with comets or meteors Thunderman
djamulu(') rootfood--grass-like plant growing near water root must be cooked before eating, tastes like a nut Triglochin procera, Thysanotus tuberosus
djamurr rib(s)
djan is that so?
djana' fat (generic, specific for kidney fat) (bone) marrow Ext liver of stingray honey(comb)
djaṉabu spear--bamboo
djanamar herb--small with a small, flat potato Microstemma sp.
djanayŋa Pacific Island (?)
djanbi pile, heap, bundle, roll
djanbirrk tree--edible fruit Great Morinda
djanda lizard (generic) goanna (small--generic male): Mangrove Monitor, Varanus indicus Merten's Water Monitor, V. mertensii Spotted Tree Goanna, V. timorensis Gould\'s Goanna, V. gouldii
djandi Sunday week
djändi shark teeth
djaṉḏil wallaby Longman's Rock Wallaby, Petrogale venustula Nail-tailed Wallaby, Onychogalea fraenata
djandu(') pipe--short (European style)
djänduḻ sandal(s)
djäṉḏurrŋala star
djaṉdjaṉdhun carry something heavy (with both hands)
djanga turtle--especially the female Long-necked Tortoise, Chelodina sp. C. rugosa (?)
djangu shape, appearance, bearing
djaṉiman Chinese, Chinaman
djan'ka lizard "Water Goanna", Merten's Water Monitor
djan'kawu dreamtime sisters associated with Creation
djan'ku appearance, image, replica, shape
djaṉmidjaṉmi(') snake Javan File Snake
djaṉŋarr hunger hungry
djaṉŋarrŋani(') starfish
djaṉ'pa tree--roots used for making string milky sap used for dye Banyan, Ficus virens, F. superba var. henneana
djaṉ'tjaṉdhun toddle (of baby)
djänuk fish--small
djanumbi plant--beach creeper
djany'tjun extend, stretch out (as tentacles of Sea-Wasp), be longer than it should (dress with hem undone)
djanyarr leaves of Pandanus--dried out and ready for weaving
djänyi' shrub--with thorns and edible black fruits Conkerberry, Carissa lanceolata
djaŋ'gun draw, write make, build
djaŋakthun call great snake during Gunapipi ceremony
djaŋalk mannerism of body (while walking or running)
djaŋarr pandanus--stripped and ready for weaving
djäŋgal frog
djaŋgaḻa bird Darter, Diver Duck
djaŋgaḻan bird Darter, Diver Duck
djaŋgarrarr calm water (river)
djäŋgitj sorcerer
djaŋgurr lizard Frilled Lizard
djaŋu this, here
djaŋu'mi language--collective name for variety spoken by Mandatja and Warramiri clans
djapthama stand (something up), erect
djäpa(') tree and its soft fruit which turns from red to a purplish colour when ripe--ready to eat around March
djapaḏayan spear wire spear with a single iron prong
djäpana clouds--yellow (as sun begins to set)
djapaṉarra grass Portulaca bicolor
djapani Japanese (person or language)
djapaŋ Japanese (person or language), Japan
djaparri sunset
djapathu shoe(s)
djapiḻana tin, billycan, pannikin
djapu' clan-nation (eastern Dl)
djapu' ant--stinging, similar to meat ants, but living in the ground rather than in antmounds
djäpu soap
djapur rough, bumpy
djär shade, shadow
djara tree--with immense thorns, good for shade Cathormion umbellatum
djararrk Poor dear! expression of pity or sympathy used with body parts
djäri rainbow, coloured light multi-coloured
djarŋgamirri khaki colour(s)
djarŋgulk neck, front of neck Ext creek, river, channel (between islands)
djarpanbuluwuy beach
djar(')tjaryun walk quickly, trot off, set off
djarryun stretch (out a part of the body)
djarr'thama spear
djarr'yun choose, sort (out), "study" (compare and contrast)
djarra water--rain (in rock pool)
djarraḏatpuwa bird Chestnut Rail
djarradjarra' around, all over
djarrak bird gull (generic): Whiskered Tern, Chidonias hybrida, Silver Gull, Larus novaehollandiae, Little Tern, Sterna albifrons, Crested Tern, S. bergii, etc.
djarrakaḻa'yun move in an uncontrolled way
djarrambaḻ hail stone(s)
djarrami glass, mirror
djarramumu snail--small, not eaten Land Snail, Albersia sp.
djarrany'tjun dig, scratch the ground (Rit) pull -in fumble (around), scrabble
djärraŋ horse
djarraŋgay' finger--little, "pinky"
djarrapuru spear (collective term)
djarrarrayun drift (of boat) slip, slide (down bank)
djarrarrman call a person names (but not swearing), sling off (at)
djarraṯawun' light (generic)
djarrawurr gathering
djarray(') rootfood Wild Onion (?)
djarrbarbar long and thin, tall
djärrgiṯ shellfish Freshwater Mussel
djarrikaŋ' building
djärritjarri cloth, material
djarriyaŋ building
djarrkthun carve (out, e.g., belly of dugout canoe), scrape sharpen (with knife)
djarrka lizard--black & yellow Merten's Water Monitor, "Water Goanna", Varanus mertensi
djarrkaḏama bird Cormorant, Diving Duck
djarrkthunamirr anteater
djarrma gossip
djarr'mawul yam Ipomoea sp.
djarrŋgaliyam laugh
djarrpi(') crooked, bent wrong, incorrect (practice) all around, in various directions
djarrpuḏay' left (side, handed)
djarru' sour poison(ous)
djarruḏu wallaby male Agile Wallaby, Macropus agilis
djarruŋ needle
djarruŋu bird--seagull
djarruṯu wallaby female Agile Wallaby, Macropus agilis Rock Wallaby
djarrwaḻk shoulder blade
djarrwaṉ messy, untidy, scattered about
djarrwark clan
djarrwarwar long and thin
djarrwaṯ string--worn during mourning
djärrwiṯ shellfish Freshwater Mussel
djarrwutu wallaby--agile, female
djat chop (down or out, with knife or axe, e.g., belly of dugout canoe), hit with something sharp
djat spear, pierce
djät shirt
djaṯam centipede (harmful)
djatati Saturday
djatpar'yunmirri bash oneself (in grief)
djaṯpaŋarri song and dance (open to public)
djatparkthun climb (using hands and feet)
djathurru sour poison(ous)
djätj judge
djatja current
djätja kangaroo, wallaby (generic)
djätji(') stingray--brown with white spots
djatjpaḻaḻ'yun skid, slide (along)
djatjpurkthun float
djätjthi Thursday
djatjurkmarama turn inside out take out and throw away
djaw' take (away from) GEN , snatch, catch steal
djäwa storm, cyclone
djawakalaŋ lizard Northern Blue-Tongue
djawaḻ(') secretly (done, e.g., killing), deceptive
djawaryun tired, sad, depressed, bored be sick and tired (of something)
djawar'yun spear, pierce give an injection sew Sg
djawar'yun fly around
djawarr'yun pull (out, e.g., pricle from foot), take out, extract
djawarrabiŋ clan (Djinang, extinct)
djawarrkthun preach, say words in ceremony, tell a message loudly explain Ext prophesy feel around inside a hollow area
djawukirri joke, kid, say what isn't true, tell lies
djawul none, nothing
djawuḻa stick--small, sharp, pointed
djawuḻkarraŋu Witchetty grub--as it emerges from cocoon
djawuḻpa old (man, person) father
djäwuḻu shoot (of plant) grey hair
djawurrku flood
djawurr'wurr plant
djawuṯ spear--stone head
djäy sew(ing), mending
djäyak tree Fan Palm
djayay'yun tear, split (paper, cloth)
djäybuŋ totem
djaykuḻuŋ cyclone
djaykuŋ(') snake Javan File Snake, Acrochordus javanicus Little File Snake, A. granulat us,a
djaymila fish Moon Fish
djaypila fish Moon Fish
djaypimap save up
-dji INCHoative: becoming, getting to be
djitjun sting (of eyes as from smoke)
djibay Get away! (to dogs)
djibukun go fishing (especially with hook and line)
djeḏa midnight (middle of the night to about 3 a.m.)
djiḏapun sneak (along)
djegaṯ tail lower leg handle
djikali wife--real or classificatory, cousin, mate MBC-opposite moiety to self
djekan scapegoat (someone who is always picked on or blamed)
djikarr(') cyst mole (Rit) boil wart
djikay(') bird--small (generic) (finches)
djeki lock
djikiḻirritj bird Hooded Parrot (?)
djikin chicken
djikirit cigarette
djikpi' bird Owlet-Nightjar
djikulu sunset
djikuḻuḻu bird White Heron
djekuŋ mouse Delicate Mouse, Pseudomys delicatulus
djikurrthun stab, pierce
djekurr clouds from the east
djikurruna turtle shell
djikuyu crab Mudcrab (generic) (?)
dje'la salt
djilarra' tree--with dangerous milky sap Gutta Percha Tree, Excoecaria parvifolia
djiḻawurr bird Jungle Fowl Ext: chicken
djili gift--owed
djili' ability to work well and stick at a job
djiḻidjiḻ' bird "Rainbird", Woodswallow (?) not Koel
djilili bird Water Whistle-Duck
djililkthun diarrhoea, pass loose faeces
djelirr hailstone(s) thick black cloud(s)
djilirrma rainclouds from the east
djilitjilikaŋ gun, revolver
djiḻkaw'yun climb hang (clothes on a line)
djiḻwirryun fix a spearhead
djilwuywuy porpoise, dolphin (?)
djim'bun poke (with stick), cut strips (in, as paperbark before stripping it off)
djimaḏa'marama gut, remove entrails (of)
djimalka tree Gum Tree sp.
djimat smart show-off
djimbarrmirri spear--barbed
djembirri' fish mature Mangrove Jack
djimbitj back--lower
djimbiya(') axe (steel)
djimdjimdhun put (out) Pl
djimi fin--dorsal
djimi' leech
djimikamba fish--small, saltwater, has long tail and jumps
djimiṉḏi(') spear with three or four steel prongs (for fishing)
djimit tree--with edible "apples" Planchonella sp.
djimugu' spear wire spear
djimuku(') steel (axe), iron rod, crowbar, heavy metal
djimukuwatj tin shed
djin Is that so? particle expressing uncertainty
djinaga(') inside underneath
djinaku of/for this (one/person)
djinakuḻ(i) to this (person)
djinakuŋ from this (one), made by this (person)
djinakura by/with this (person)
djinakuru from this (person)
djinakurumurru about this (person)
djinakuruy about this (person)
djinakuy about this (one)
djinal by/at this (one)
djinana tree Ironwood
djinaŋ by this (person), with/using this (one)
djinaŋ language--collective name for variety spoken by Balmbi, Djadiwitjibi, Manyarriŋ, Marraŋu, Mildjiŋi, Murruŋun, Wulaki clans Cf: Murruwun
djinaŋbala now, today
djinapaŋ gun, rifle
djinawa(') inside under(neath)
djinba clan
djinbirrk tree--small, used in making a yellowish dye Morinda citrifolia
djinbulk sharp
djinbuma pinch, squeeze (boil)
djingaryun stand, get up
djingiritj frog--tiny
djingiritj tree Marble Tree, Owenia vernicosa
djingu pandanus nut meat
djiṉi beehive entrance--very long, protruding from tree hard black beeswax at bottom of beehive
djiṉi buttock(s)
djiṉi-djiṉi spear
djiniŋ language--collective name for variety spoken by Da:bi, Djinba, Ganalpiŋu and Mandalpiŋu clans
djiṉiyiṉi spear
djin'kal lizard Frilled-Neck
djin'kiritj frog--small, green
djinma shark Whaler Shark, River Shark
djinmir' edge, tip (of the tongue)
djiṉ'pu shrub--huge leaves useful as plates its fruit Fish-Plate Shrub, Guettarda speciosa
djinhi with this, using this
djinhiku of this, for this (one)
djinhikuli at this (one, place)
djinhikuma on this side
djinhimana today, now
djinhiŋul from this (one, place)
djinydjalma(') crab--generic for large crabs, e.g: Blue Swimmer Crab, Portunus pelagicus specifically the adult female Mud Crab, Scylla serrata
djinydjim (ex)change transform
djiŋaṉḏarr bird--has a white breast (in contrast to the male) female Darter, Diver Duck
djeŋarra' light, bright
djiŋdjiŋ(') wire (flexible), wire netting
djiŋgilit singlet
djiŋgurala bird seagull, tern (generic)
djiŋi tree? Pistia stratiotes
djiŋ'tjiŋdhun drip, sprinkle (rain, water)
djip stay (seated or standing), put (on, down)
djepa' inexpensive, cheap
djipaku stingy
djepi' cereal (especially flour or oats)
djepu flag
djipuluŋ half only a little
djirambulk yam--long, deep in ground, has a very special taste
djirambulk rootfood--small edible root of Kapok Tree
djirambulk tree Erythrina sp.
djiraŋ' boil
djirarr stone--smooth (for sharpening knifes, pounding food, etc.)
djiraw' bird
djirika shellfish--edible
djirikitj bird Brown Quail, Swamp Quail, Coturnix ypsilophorus, Black-backed Button Quail, Turnix maculosa
djirirr grass-like plants with fairly sharp edges found near water Sedge sp., Cyperus sp.
djirirr bird--small, found around water
djirk design--painted
djerpa fish Stripey, Lutjanus carponotatus Chinaman Fish, Symphorus nematophorus
djir'tjir tree--small-leaved, fruit-bearing shrubs Drypetes sp. (and/or) Diospyros sp. (?)
djirryun brace for landing (of bird)
djirr'yun go down
djirra stand
djerra grave--sand
djirrbili fish Bony Bream, "Bonefish"
djirri tree--found inbrackish swamps or at the edges of billabongs Paperbark sp.
djirri sin, adultery strong word, often used for adultery and fornication (Rit) Intj Oops!
djirri' yam
djirri' bird Little Corella
djirribi-djirribi bird Willie Wagtail, Rhipidura leucophrys
djirribiyuk bird Grass Whistle-Duck
djirriḏiḏi bird Forest Kingfisher, Azure Kingfisher, Ceyx azura
djirrikaymirr(i) leader(s) of Dhuwa ceremonies, old man (implies full knowledge about Yolŋu law, songs, sacred business, etc.)
djirrikiki' bird Grass Owl, Barn Owl
djirriḻ'tjirriḻ Cricket insect--small, found only on/in water at billabongs --(?)lives in ground, nuisance in gardens
djirrimbilpilwuy crocodile
djirrimitjirrimi bird Willy Wagtail
djirriṉ-djirriṉ bird--small grass (generic)
djirripum(a) massage, stroke calm (someone) down by stroking them
djirriṯ sailpiece--wooden bar on mast that crosses the sail diagonally
djirritj diarrhoea
djirriwi-djirriwi bird Willy Wagtail
djerrk bag--of string (made in same fashion as fishnets--older person's knowledge)
djirrkaṉ-djirrkaṉ messy, untidy, all over the place
djirrkawul tree/shrub--used for making spears leaves are useful for making damper on Droopy Leaf, Aglaia elaeagroides
djirrkdjirrk snail--large, brownish, freshwater, used as bait
djirrkiḻi fish--edible Groper
djirrkiny' rat--small
djerrkŋu cloud
djirrkuḏupthun splash, dive, paddle
djerrkura surname
djirrmaŋa(') anteater Echidna (generic) "Porcupine", Short-beaked Echidna, Tachyglossus aculeatus acanthion
djirr'miny Firefly
djirrŋama' anteater--spiny Echidna, "Porcupine"
djirrŋiriny fruit--black, gathered in Wet shrub (on which it grows?)
djirrŋ'miṉ Firefly
djirrpaḻ bark fibres (especially from Kurrajong) used in making string
djerrpaṉ rock
djirrpara tree Ironwood, Erythropleum chlorostachyum
djirrparri bird
djirrpiyirrpi bird Willy Wagtail
djirrpuḻ polygamist, man with many wives
djirrtja downhill, downriver
djirrtjirr grey
djirr'tjirryun come down, descend
djerru spoon, shovel
djirrwalala inland area
djirrwiyirrwi' bird Willy Wagtail
djirrwurkburk surname
djeṯ bird immature White-Breasted Sea Eagle
djitama yam--round, must be prepared very carefully, i.e: boiled, grated, and left overnight "Wild Potato", Dioscorea bulbifera var. rotunda
djetama Cycad fruit
djitpiḏi fish Archerfish, "Riflefish"
djitpiḻirri wallaby male Agile Wallaby
djiṯtjiṯpuma pull out the entrails (of kangaroo or emu carcass) pull to pieces (eg bag or string)
djitjun sting (eyes from smoke)
djitji(') turtle shell
djetji(') sore, wound, injury, cut, hole
djitjir tree
djetjirama mend (canoe) solder
djitjirukmirri pitted, pock marked (skin)
djetjitj scissors
djitjiwarr'yun squirt water
djitjiwuru wind--light westerly
djiw' fart--whisper, silent passing of air
djiwarr(') sky (where birds fly), heaven (place above the sky) above
djewaṯ tail lower leg handle
djiwatjiwa ripple(s) (on calm water)
djewiny tree Gum, Bloodwood (?)
djiwirr'thama pester, hound
djiwukun go fishing (especially with hook and line)
djewuḻ seaweed, water weed (generic): Blyxa sp Myriophyllum sp Marsilea crenata
djiwuŋmarama mix water (with something, e.g., flour to make damper)
djiwuŋgu bird Swamp Pheasant, Pheasant Coucal
djiya seat, chair
djiyan make love (to), copulate, "fuck" ḎvulgarṈ ACC
djuḏapthun creep, sneak (up on)
djuḏu'yun stay behind, hang back, delay (Rit) squat, sit on one's haunches (especially in a creek trying to catch fish)
djuḏum' mud
djuḏupthun go in, enter
djuḏurrku bird Diving Duck
djuḏutjuḏumun bird Striated Pardalote, Pardalotus striatus
djudjuy'yun push
djugu(') ceremony, song
djok sacred, under taboo (e.g., boys living in seclusion in the bush before their circumcision)
djoka' sugar
djukaḻ fish--freshwater Long Tom
djukarrŋu brother (-older) close friend (especially if exchanging gifts)
djukaṯ'thun limp, be lame
djoki blade
djukit underpants (men's)
djukitjuki chook(s), chicken
djuktjukŋani(ŋ) bush--small, used by children for shaft of toy spears with rag or Paperbark end Hibiscus meraukensis Hyptus suaveolens
djuku louse, small head lice, flea(s)
djukurr(') fat(s), grease, lard bone marrow Ext butter liver of stingray honey
djuḻ'yun drip bubble (as water)
djulam area out of sight under cover
djolarra naked
djuḻaymuŋ stingray--edible
djuḻgudjuḻgu'marama make a fence, put posts into holes
djulima mouth organ
djoliŋ mouth organ
djuḻk go on (ahead, first, past), keep going -tr pass (by, over) cross
djulka(') earth, ground, dirt, dirt, sand Ext world
djuḻku' shellfish--edible used as cup (False) Trumpet Shell, Triton, Syrinx aruanus
djuḻkumu(') shellfish Oyster sp.
djulŋi dear (affectionate or complimentary term used with parts of the body)
djulŋi good, nice, fine, beautiful
djulpan star constellation--looks like a canoe
djuḻu' tree Lancewood Tree, Acacia shirleyi
djolu(') matches
djuḻubu bird Straw-necked Ibis
djulukuṉ root--edible Parsonsia leichardtii
djuḻuḻ'yun hide
djuḻuḻu head
djululu'yun spill (liquid), pour out
djuḻum' mud
djuluŋa pillow
djolurr white clay
djuḻurryun jump into water
djuḻurrpi fish Giant Threadfin, Eleutheronema tetradactylum
djuḻuwu bird Glossy Ibis, Plegadis falcinellus Straw-necked Ibis, Threskiornis spinicollis (?)
djulwaḏak bird Friarbird(s), Philemon spp. Singing Honey-Eater, Lichenostamus virescens Yellow Oriole, Oriolus flavocinctus White-rumped Miner
djumbuṉu snake Javan File Snake
djumburr-djumburr mosquito--large, malarial (?)
djumbuyŋu bird--small, chirping
djomu fat (animal)
djomula(') tree Casuarina, (Coastal) Whistling Tree, Whistling Pine, Beach She Oak, Casuarina equisetifolia
djumuḻuḻu' euro--young
djumurr'yun jump (slowly or repeatedly), hop along (like a wallaby or kangaroo)
djun piece, bit
djunama straight on
djuṉḏatjuṉḏa tree/shrub--edible part(?)
djunduktjunduk bird Red-Backed Kingfisher, Halcyon pyrrhopygia
djungaḻin hair
djoṉgum(a) collect, gather together, get take hold of
djuṉmal bird--size of eagle, whistles for tide to come in
djunuma Come this way!, Here!
djunuŋgu immediately, straight away
djunuŋguyaŋu dugong (Rit) turtle--green
djuny'tjumu shellfish Mangrove Mure x,y , Chicoreus permestus
djuŋambi octopus
djuŋgaḻiwarr shell--edible Conch, (False) Trumpet Shell
djuŋgayi boss, "manager", "lawyer" (relation a person has to the ceremonies and land of his mother's clan)
djoŋgu(') hat
djuŋguṉ widow(er), bereaved spouse
djuŋguwan ceremony--major
djuŋ'tjuŋ nasal ridge, bridge of nose
djuŋuḏu fish--freshwater Long-Tom
djuŋuṉŋuṉ spear--shaped like shovel spear, but made of wood
djuŋuny identity, manner(ism) custom, way of life, way of walking
djuŋupal stone
djop soap
djopani smoke
djupi' shrub--fruit-bearing Antidesma ghaesembilla
djur(') way, vision
djura' fruit of Wild Cashew (must be cooked and eaten with caution)
djuramu group of (young) men, "gang" (of single blokes) (Rit) war party, group of warriors
djurap giraffe
djurirr' bird Great Bowerbird
djorkuma shelter, hide, protect something (with hand or arm)
djurpuwaḏi shellfish Turbo pethalatus (?)
djur(')tjur bird
djurum'djurum bird--can stand on waterlily leaves Lotusbird
djurwirr(') bird Great Bowerbird, Chlamydera nuchalis
djurryun pour (on) ACC , spread (on, as jam), paint, plaster
djurr'yun go into water
djorra' paper, book, newspaper
djurrayŋaniŋ fish Eel sp.
djorrgu crocodile--freshwater
djurrkuḏupthun dive (head first), fall headlong
djurrkululu'yun flow, run (of liquids)
djurrkuṉ narrow (as something solid, space, road) space, room
djurrpuṉ star--evening, Venus
djorrtja' fish Sand Mullet
djorru' cigar
djurruk wet, sticky
djurrut syrup
djurryurr' stream, temporary freshwater rivulet
djut spear, pierce
djutthun beat, hit, make, gather
djota tree--from which woomeras are made Mistletoe Tree, Exocarpus latifolius
djutabata spear--fish
djuṯpila bird--large hawk(s) Osprey Falcon(s), Falco longipennis, F. peregrinus Red Goshawk, Erythrotriorchis radiatus Little Eagle, Hieraaetus morphnoides
djutu raft (made from Paperbark), bark canoe
djotjthi Tuesday
djutjtjutj Goodbye!, Keep going! (Rit) Adv far away
djuwakan totem
djuwaḻak water
djuwali blade
djuwarrmin surname
djuy' go
djoy' sap or gum, especially of Bloodwood tree
do' store, shop
ḏo'yun come, arrive
ḏobal tree Gmelina dalrympleana White Cloud Tree, Parinari corymbosa Leichhardt Tree, Nauclea coadunata
ḏubitj twitching of muscles--said to give warning of coming events
ḏubukthun pick (up), lift (up)
ḏobu'ṯubu dumplings
ḏuḏatj(tj)un flip over, be upside down
ḏuḏuḏu ceremony--informal, where young people are taught to dance or sing
ḏuḏuḏuyun make a scraping or rustling noise (e.g., goanna in log)
ḏuḏuku'yun make a scraping or banging noise (e.g., moving tables and chairs around)
ḏuḏupmarama miss the mark, nearly hit
ḏuḏupthun hit (drum, tin--as when playing)
ḏogu wave(s--of sea)
ḏukthun heal (up), get well or better
ḏukitj shoot (of plant) grey hair
ḏukṯuk desirous need, want, liking, love
ḏulyun rise (e.g., mound which reveals that something is buried there), swell (e.g. bread)
ḏul'yun catch fire, kindle burn off (grass), be destroyed by fire
ḏol' branches used as camouflage (in hunting emus)
ḏolaŋ bowl (round and deep, used for water)
duliduli doll
ḏulk run Sg
ḏulkthun explode, burst
ḏulki' bad, rotten, off (of food) maggot
ḏulkṯulkthun blister
ḏulkun ankle lower leg kneecap
ḏulmuŋgurr'yun swell, rise (of bread) blister
ḏulmuy' tree--with usually inedible fruits Canarium australianum
ḏulŋa'yun angry--get
ḏulŋayŋu good at hunting or getting food (said of woman)
ḏulŋurr'yun pull out, extract (e.g., splinter), tug at (fishing line)
ḏulpu snack, something to satisfy hunger
ḏulpuŋu clan
ḏulpupuyun swell, rise (of bread)
ḏolpurk bird--owl(s) Barn Owl, Tyto alba Southern Boobook, T. novaehollandiae Collared Sparrowhawk, Accipiter cirrhocephalus Brown Goshawk, A. fasciatus etc.
ḏulpurru penis, "cock" ḎvulgarṈ
ḏulpuyŋu clan
ḏolpuyŋu jungle
ḏulthu'yun sit in crouched position (legs pulled in)
ḏulukutjthun rise, get up (and run from danger)
ḏulul'mirri baking powder
ḏululuyun slide along on the ground (of crocodile)
ḏulwarra parcel (wrapped in paperbark--for cooking specific types of traditional breads), Ext wrapping (paper) wrapped (up)
ḏum'bun open up, have a hole or opening, be(come) punctured
dumatj too much!
ḏumbatjun splash
ḏum'thunamirr snake Carpet Python, Children's Python
ḏomurra(') Mangrove Worm (lives in trunk of tree and may be eaten raw)
ḏumurr(u) big, large Sg
Duṉḏiwuy (Mar) outstation (Mrk) sacred rock
ḏunu ridge, mound, rise (of ground), sandbank, high ground
ḏuŋ'thun throb, beat (of heart)
ḏuŋḏuŋ lazy
doŋga Tonga (Pacific Island)
duŋgi donkey
ḏuŋgul dirt, bush soil, red sand or dirt Ext dry waterhole bauxite light tan, orange (reddish to yellowish shades), dusty area
ḏuŋurru ankle
ḏup throw (spear), toss, cast (anchor, fishing line) get off (or down from vehicle)
ḏupṯup pulse
ḏupṯup emu
ḏupṯupun beat, throb (of heart)
ḏupḏuḏupun gallop (of buffalo, etc.)
ḏopu'thama knead and prepare damper for baking
dopulu(') gambling, card playing
ḏupun hollow log or tree--used as didgeridoo or burial post Idm greedy
ḏur(') push (down) bump, knock (something over)
ḏurak truck
duram drum
durambil (?) trumpet any musical instrument
duratj dress
duratjitj trousers, pants
ḏurmarriny open plain
durumul' mouse--female?
ḏurryun get up (and go), rise Pl
ḏorrkulu lump, glandular swelling (of groin or underarm, as when one has an infection or the flu)
ḏutthun swell up
ḏuṯiny' mouse--large
ḏutpurrk bird--owl Boobock, Mopoke, Barking Owl, Winking Owl, Tyto sp.
ḏuttji(') firedrill, firesticks (spun or twirled to start fire) tree/shrub Premna acuminata, P. obtusifolia
ḏuṯtjiŋaniŋ shellfish--edible Large Chinese Fingernail, Knife Finger Oyster, Solen grandis, Phaxas hilaris, Enisuculus hilaris
ḏuṯu' hole, burrow (as of bandicoot)
ḏotuŋ sick and tired
ḏoṯurrk heart
ḏuṯuṯumarama press in (as when giving an injection)
ḏutj return again
ḏutjawal Come back (here)!
ḏutjṯutj gooseflesh, goosebumps (from fear or cold)
dowa store, shop
ḏuwaŋ crustacean: big Prawn, small Lobster sp. Fresh-Water Crayfish (?)
dowaŋ payback
ḏuwarr steam, smoke
ḏuwarriny smoke
ḏuwaṯ go up (a hill, from island to mainland, from beach into the bush), ascend
ḏowaw' bird Koel
ḏuwitj twitching (as of the ears of a donkey or horse)
ḏuwitj go from water to land
ḏowu wave(s--of sea)
ḏuwukthun pick up, lift
ḏowutjthun feel creepy or funny (a muscular twitch that gives warning of coming events)
ḏuy lie down, sleep
ḏuy'yun arrive
doy' money
ḏuyŋa(') yam--with white flower, long narrow leaves that often twine around cycad palms in the open bush can be eaten raw or cooked Ipomoea graminea
ḏuyŋambi yam spirit home of the departed
ḏuypuŋun fish Sleepy Cod, Mudfish, Oxyeleotris lineolatus
ḏuyuyu owe
ga and
ga is/was doing CONTinuous, PROGressive action
ga listen
ga' Give it (to me)! Thank you!
 swag loose (portable) possessions
gäbaba fruit--yellow, ripe
gabaṉ ground, dirt
gabar'yun dawn
gabil'yun wag (tail, of dog), quiver (of fish)
gabukun cover (up), bury
gabuḻay(') joker, clown, comic (any humourous or funny person who laughs a lot or talks too much)
gabuḻkabuḻ joker, comedian, clown
gabulurr grass--used for medicine & rubbing
gaḏa Oh! correction particle, when speaker realises he has made an error
gaḏa' chest, breast (torso)
gaḏagaḏa separate, apart
gaḏakun make a camp
gaḏakaḏa bird--stork Jabiru
gaḏakaḏaŋaniŋ tree/shrub
gaḏaku boy--child from babyhood to circumcision, uncircumcised male
gaḏakulum tree--with large red figs Ficus racemosa
gaḏalbarr grass--tall Sorghum sp.
gaḏaman(') clever, wise, knowledgeable (in spells & medicine)
gaḏambal hull (of canoe or boat)
gaḏanuk spear (generic) spear shaft
gäḏany dew, early morning mist, fog spider
gaḏany-gaḏany long (used for parts of the body)
gaḏaŋ leaf
gaḏaŋalkitj ant--red ant with a black tail used as medicine for diarrhoea Brown Ant
gaḏarrgaḏarr emu--young
gadarru coconut
gaḏatjibala' shrub
gaḏayka(') tree Stringybark, Eucalyptus tetradonta dugong harpoon (made from this tree)
gaḏayman fetch (someone) to come along
gaḏayurr ?turtle part
gaḏipindi wade or stand in water up to one's knees
gaḏirri tree
gaḏitjirri grass Spear Grass
gaḏukaḏu crocodile (Gup) saltwater (Rit) freshwater
gaḏupuŋaniŋ stingray or shark sp. Shark Ray (?), Zebra Shark (?)
gadharra coral (generic)
gadhubaḻa paddle
gadja' bark--of Paperbark Ext paper money
gadjak mälk-m
gadjit spear--shovel
gaga hey!
gaga'miriŋu White Shafted Fantail
gagurutj cockroach--brown (as found in houses considered to have been brought by Europeans)
gakthun vomit, be sick, regurgitate, "puke", "spew" ḎrudeṈ
gäkaŋani tree? Strychnos lucida
gakarrarr' bird--white sea-gull Silver Gull
gakawarr men--initiates in Gunapipi, Ŋulmarrk, and Mutu ceremonies
gäki tobacco, cigarette
gäku egg (without a chick inside) fruit of Fig roe of Trevally
-gal ALLative, LOCative: to, at, from, with (added to persons only)
gal'yun float
gaḻ'yun crawl (as baby, snake, lizard, crocodile, etc.)
-gala ALLative, LOCative: to, at, from, with (a person)
-gala- LOCative Increment
gäḻa avoidance relationship term used by males to or about each other, or by female gurruŋ to call her maralkur "poison cousin"
galaḏar'yun fade, change colour
gaḻadjarr(') bird Egret
galagala'yun jerk, jig
gaḻagaḻk bird Pelican
galalkthun run (in fright, very fast)
gaḻamba headband--tied with string, ceremonial (for Gunapipi and Ŋulmarrk)
galambiya lizard--juvenile goannas (generic)
galanydjakalanydja flotsam, leaves and twigs brought in by the tide
galanyin(') glue (or native cement) made of chewed "sugarbag" wax or tree sap (e.g., Ironwood or Cypress)--used in making spears (Ironwood)
galaŋ clever
-galaŋa- OBLique formative: with ASC (-galaŋawuy) (added to persons only)
-galaŋa KIN suffix referring to brother or sister via their children
galaŋarr fruit of the Bush Mango/Wild Quince--yellow when ripe
galaŋarr(') clay--yellowish/reddish (used in body-painting)
gaḻaŋgamirr(i) dugong, Dugong dugong
-galaŋu- OBLique formative: with ABL (-galaŋuŋur(u)) (added to persons only)
galara tree Ficus virens
galara(') pimple, blackhead
galaray' tree--with thin leaves Wattle, Acacia sp.
galawaḏamun lizard Merten's Water Monitor
gaḻawaŋ' Nunggubuyu (language or people)
galawarraŋ(') tendon
gaḻawarraŋaniŋ crab--small, used as bait
galawaṯ tall (not long)
galawu bark of Stringybark--big pieces used for painting or shelters
galay wife (real or classificatory), mate, brother-in-law WB , sister-in-law BW first-cousin (of opposite moiety) MBC
gaḻaya fish Golden Trevally, Gnathanodon speciosus
gaḻayarr' bird Egret
gaḻayin(') tree Deep Gold Wattle, Tortulosa Wattle, Acacia torulosa
gaḻba' wallaby--female (?) or young (?) Rock Wallaby
gaḻbayuŋga surname
gaḻdjarra' fish--small freshwater Gudgeon
gali(') side
gali wife, brother-in-law
galidjan(') mälk-f
gaḻigaḻi(') boomerang
galikali mälk-f
galiku(') cloth, calico handkerchief
galimara tree/shrub Bombax ceiba cf. Antiaris toxicaria
galimiṉḏirrk bitter, brackish (water which is still drinkable)
galina matches
gaḻirrkun slide
galitjman bring close
gaḻiwaḻi(') boomerang
galiwaŋ knife--big, scythe, jungle knife
galiwin'ku settlement on Elcho Island
galiwirwiryun rotate, hang around
galiwu ?rotate
galiyal side
galiyan mälk-f
galka(') sorcerer (person with evil power who is choosen to get revenge by causing sickness or death) (Rit) warrior
gaḻka' tadpole
gaḻkaḻ holey, having holes
gälkal ant (generic), e.g: Green Tree Ant
gal'kalyun loose--be, slip up and down
galkaliya near, close
galkan put (into)
galkaṉa gathering
gaḻkarra white
gaḻkarriŋu crow
galki near(by), close (to) soon
galki fall (over, down)
galkirri fall (over, down) blow (of wind)
gaḻkitj-gaḻkitj person who breaks laws or does no work lawless, lazy
gaḻkiyarr(') shellfish--edible Spiny Chiton, Ac a,o nthopleura spin e,o sa
gaḻku fish Toad Fish
gäḻkuḻam wait (for)
galkun wait (for)
galkuruk bird Mangrove Heron, Black Bittern
gaḻmanda' fish--freshwater
galmak kidney
galmum(a) prevent from doing, restrain
galŋ hunt(ing) (?)
galŋa skin, bark Ext paper money
gaḻŋa mud
galŋadhurru knowledgeable, aware of something by experience (e.g., woman in pregnancy, man after a secret ceremony)
galŋapan closely related
galŋaparrambarr backbone--upper (from back of neck to backbone), cervical spine
gal'ŋu true (e.g., direct blood relative), real(ly) in fact, but, (al)though, however
galpaṉ sacred totemic creature
gaḻpan fish--fresh water, found in billabongs
gaḻpaw boil
gaḻpu woomera, flat spear-thrower (for fish spear)
gaḻpu shellfish Codakia sp.
gälpu(') clan-nation
gaḻpuŋani epiglottis
gaḻpuŋaniŋ shrub with red flowers and stem "Purple Clover", Gomphrena canescens
gaḻpuŋaniŋ shellfish--edible Flavum Heart Cockle, Cardium flavum
gaḻtja snake Water Python
gaḻtjurr clitoris
gaḻtjurrk ovaries
gaḻu'yun get (water)
galuku Coconut, Cocus nucifera
galuma timber, dressed or processed plank of wood
gäḻumay(') bird Australian Pelican, Pelecanus conspicullatus
galumunyan rich
galun rootfood--fine roots come from a larger nut-like root Cayratia trifolia
gäḻurra tree--with a whitish fruit Yellow-Ball Flower, Malotus nesophylus (Rit) tree with small reddish fruits in the Wet Ficus platypoda (?)
galurru(') cigarette, cigarette paper
galwandhun sway to and fro
gaḻwu'yun jump, start with surprise
gaḻyarra' fish--small freshwater Gudgeon
gam' like this, you see?, uh?, hmm? in discourse Look out!, Watch!, Listen!
gäma carry (in hand), bring, take (along) "have"
gamaḻaŋga clan-nation
gamany mälk-f
gamanydjan mälk-f
gamarraŋ(') mälk-m
gamaṯa tree? Zostera sp.
gambalala' wallaby--young male Agile (Sandy) Wallaby
gambarr many (people, animals)
gami spear (generic)
gaminyarr grandchild (of opposite moiety) DC/m, SC/f first-cousin once removed BDC/m, ZSC/f , grand-niece, grand-nephew FMSC,MFDC
gäminyŋa vine--with red nuts
gämiritj mosquito--white (?)
gämu(') bee--with pale markings on head fierce its hive is often found in the forks of Stringybarks in valleys and stoney places Honey Bee, Trigona sp.
gämuk night
gamunuŋgu(') clay (used for painting, chewing, and eating), pigment
gämuruŋ Witchetty Grub (edible wood-boring beetle larvae, found most often in Eucalyptus tectifica)
gamuruŋgu ochre--dark red (used as body paint)
gämurra decay (teeth)
gämurru(') nose point (of pencil, land, or speech) lesson, moral (of a story)
gana so that
gaṉa spear (generic)
gaṉa tree--mangrove Rhizophora sp.
gana' enough, adequate
gäna alone, separate, distinct, different, by oneself
gäṉa tree--inedible fruit has Mangrove Worms Mangrove
gana-gana termite
ganalbiŋu clan-nation
ganalpuy clan-nation
ganambarr surname
gaṉamu mosquito--large, malarial
ganan leave (alone), don't touch
gaṉanhdharr bird--heron(s) and egret(s) Pacific Heron, Ardea pacifica, Red Heron, A. picata Cattle Egret, Areola Ibis Great Egret, Egretta alba etc.
ganaŋ'thun separate (be)
gaṉaŋanydja' feathers of emu ḎrareṈ body hair
gaṉaŋathala pool--small, temporary freshwater flood-plain where you cannot drink the water
ganaparra rootfood vine
ganari' tree
ganari'mirri Shady Beach
ganarri tree--small inedible fruit good for shade Beauty Leaf, Oil Nut Tree, Calophyllum ionophyllum
ganarrimirr Ten Mile (on Galiwin'ku)
ganarrthama leave (alone), not touch
ganawuyma turtle
gaṉay' yam--long Ipomoea graminea
ganba deserted place (with no people)
ganba'yun look in vain
gaṉba'yun hobble
ganbaḏa emu
ganbark desert, dry place
gaṉbay groin
gaṉbilpil tree Gum sp.
ganbukpuk cloverlike flower Gomphrena sp.
ganbuḻirri' clover--with fairly long, reddish stem Gomphrena sp.
gaṉburk possum (or similar animal)
ganda hip, rump
gaṉḏa'yun trap (fish, etc.) in a dam
gandaki kangaroo
gaṉḏalpurru kangaroo--female, mature (?) Black Wallaroo, Macropus bernardus
ganda(-)mukuy tree--with edible gum Terminalia canescens
gaṉḏaŋu surname
gandarr waist middle, midst
gandatj phlegm
gaṉḏawul' wallaby Rock Wallaby, Petrogale sp.
gandayala kangaroo
gaṉḏipa tree Gum sp.
gandirri flour, damper
gandiwulk shrub--edible root Kapok Bush, Cochlospermum fraseri
gäṉḏurru tree, bush, shrub (generic) stick, log, (piece of) wood
gandhaḻirr wind
gändhaw' bird Bittern
gändja cuttlefish
gaṉdjarriny messenger inviting people to a ceremony
gaṉdjawarra' crab claw--used for smoking
gandji(') bird--stork "Jabiru", Black-Necked Stork, Xenorhynchus asiaticus
gaṉdji'yun walk with a stick or limp
gaṉdjitjiwuy Beach
gaṉdjurrma stick--used by a sorcerer for killing
gaṉgaṉ outstation
gaṉgi(') tree Northern Cypress Pine, Callitris intratropica, C. columellaris
gangul yellow--dark (ochre)
ganguri(') yam (collective term) Long Yam (found in monsoon forest, can be eaten raw or cooked), Dioscorea sativa var. elongata, Vigna radiata
gaṉguthu(') baby, small child
gaṉguypa flying fox Black Fruit Bat, Pteropus alecto, P. gouldii
ganima plant with grape-like berry
ganinyiḏi stick--digging
ganiparr root--edible
ganitja skeleton
gaṉ'kurr(\') shellfish--edible Trochus Shell(s)
gaṉmurru tree--good for shade
gaṉŋal fish--large catfish Freshwater Catfish, Tandanus tandanus Eel-tailed Catfish, Neosilurus ater
ganu' ashes, embers, hot ashes (and sand) dust, dirt, small particles of soil
gaṉuŋ lame, spastic, paralysed, cripple(d)
ganuru tears (from crying)
ganhalpuyŋu clan-nation
ganharrnhalkur avoidance relationship term used by someone when referring to your mumalkur
ganharrnhur(u) term used by someone when referring to your momu
ganhdharraŋa' fish Swordfish
-ganyaŋ' little, small
ganyawu(') tree fruit Wild Cashew, Queensland Tar Tree, Semecarpus australiensis Australian Cashew, Anarcandinum occidentale (?)
ganybu string-bag (for carrying things), fishing net, dragnet mosquito net
ganydjarr power, strength, energy, speed Ext pulse engine, motor Adj hard, powerfully, with force
gänydjiŋ big rock off Wurrwala
ganydjiwuy evening star
ganydjuḻa eye seed Ext bullet hook (on end of woomera) well, soak girlfriend, boyfriend
ganygarr fight--all in, war
ganyim'thun jump in fright, be startled, be astonished
ganyiri bird--white head, brown body Brahminy Kite, Haliastur indus
gany'tjaraŋay tree--mangrove
gany'tjurr bird White-faced Heron, Ardea novaehollandiae Nankeen Night-Heron (?) Eastern Reef Egret, Egretta sacra
ganyu(') star (generic)
gaŋ'marama poke
gäŋa vine/climber--edible fruit Wild Passionfruit, Passiflora foetida
gäŋalkmirri stingray
gaŋaru vomit juice from the pounding of soaked Cycad nuts
gaŋga carefully, gradually, slowly, slightly, not hard
gaŋgathirr(i) fetch (a person), ask someone to go with you get up and go
gäŋili(') shellfish--edible Fluted Giant Clam
gap Quiet!
gäp cup
gapaḏi possum--male
gapala(') boat--large, steamship, warship rudder
gapaḻa clearing, open plain clear sky
gäpaḻaḻ cloud
gapalathana estuary where special contraceptive rocks are found
gapamaḏa axe--stone, short
gapaṉ clay--white, white ochre (used for painting, chewing and eating) clay(s), ochre(s) (generic)
gapaṉbulu Cape Arnhem (sacred name and area)
gapany burial ground for Yirritja clans
gapila fish Butterfish, Selenotoca multifasciata
gapililyun go around, revolve, twirl around
gapiny name for Da:tiwuy, Ŋaymil and Golamala clans
gapirri niece ZD , nephew ZS
gapitjirrirri shellfish
gapman government
gapu water, fluid, liquid, beverage (soft drink, beer, liquor) Ext blister alcohol petrol
gapuḻa blind--practically, person who squints
gapuḻa silly, stupid
gaputjirrirri shellfish--edible Latona cuneata
gapuwiyak Lake Evella
garyun whisper
gär damper made from cycad nuts
gara spear (generic)
gärak sky--up high where clouds and stars are
garakawal quickly, fast
garama go, walk
garambaka spear of the Thunderman
garanaŋga(') snake Green Tree Snake, Dendrelaphis punctulatus Brown Tree Snake, Boiga sp. (?)
garanybirr-garanybirr cicada
garanyinyi cicada, locust
gara(-)nyirrnyirr cicada
garaŋ coral (?)
garaŋa shoulder middle (of canoe or boat)
garapa spear--single-pronged
gararra tree Grevillea
gararrkararr dirty, discoloured
gararrman fish large Barramundi
garatha(') lizard--found in hollow trees, dark on top with yellowish belly, spots on tail (immature?) Spotted Tree Goanna
garawirrtja surname
garayarra kangaroo--joey pouch young of Antilopine Wallaroo, Macropus antilopines
garayurru tree Wild Cassava, Wild Cotton Tree, Cochlospermum fraseri
gardhurr'yun work, dig, bale out with lots of energy
gar(-)djarr'yun spear (fish) with wire spear
garkambarr light--that allows one to see in the dark (glow of moon, glimmer of sun before it has risen, torchlight, etc.)
garkgarkthun silly (be, act), be simple
garkman frog (generic, e.g: Striped Burrowing Frog, Cyclorana alboguttatus, C. australis)
garku fern (generic), e.g., those growing in fresh water with edible roots
garkunydja' bird Nankeen Night-Heron
garkuyi stingray Fiddler Ray, Tr y,i gonorrhina fasciata Numbfish, Hypnos monopterygium
garkuyi fish Blue-Tailed Mullet, Valamugil seheli Tiger Mullet, Liza argentea
garma(') ceremonial site--for circumcision, held in camp any open sacred ceremony
garmak water
garmak ceremony--funeral circumcison area
gar'maŋ frog--including Green Tree Frog
garminydjarrk earth, sand, soil, ground, dirt Ext world sugar
ŋurruṉaŋgal first ancestors
garmuŋ' witchetty grub (found most often in Eucalyptus tectifica and Sterculia quadrifida trees)
garŋgarŋ' tree Denhamia obscura (?)
garŋgulkpuy Cato River area
gartjarr snake Water Python
gärukŋu companion, partner
gärul store, any place where food is plentiful Ext Paradise, Garden of Eden
gärun turtle--adult Loggerhead Turtle, Caretta caretta
garurr noise
garwarrwarr' gold, bronze
garryun speak, ask
garr'yun get, pick up, fetch (someone) ask (someone) to accompany you lead, take (people somewhere)
gärr' spider (generic) dew, fog (spiderweb)
garraba' bird Blue-winged Kookaburra
garraḏikarraḏi dragonfly
garrak(-g)arrak bird Darter, Diver Duck
garrakiyarr crossing in a river or stream, ford, shallow part of a river
garral'yun burp, belch
garrala bird Australian White Ibis, Threskiornis aethiopica Spoonbill (?)
garraluma belch, burp
garram string, fishline
garramat above, on top, up sky (where birds fly)
garrambu bottle, jar
garramu flowers--purple (off a vine growing near a beach)
garranhdhalu White Woman, Asian lady, non-Aboriginal woman
garrany'tjun paddle, row (canoe)
garranyirri fish Nursery Fish (?)
gärraŋ coral ("candle" type)
garraŋunuŋ(') shark--not eaten Hammerhead Shark, Sphyrna lewini
garrar name
garrarra'yun dance
gärrarramirri indistinct (of land seen at a distance)
garrarrak marching together, lined up
garrarrak pole laid across two forked sticks on dancing ground
garraṯa fight--all in, war
garrathulu juice from the pounding of soaked Cycad nuts
garratji axe (steel)
garratjimartjmartj tree Grevillea mimosoides (? or closely related sp.)
garraw'yun shine (on), light up
garrawaṉ area on mainland off of Groote Eylandt
garrawarr bird Little Black Cormorant
garrawaṯtji' crest (of bird) feather head ornament
garrawurra surname
garray lord, master Ext Jesus, God lovely, good
garrayalk savour of cooked bush meat
garrayiwyiw drizzle, light rain
garrbi'yun bandage
garrbululuk bird--small quail
gärri enter, go in(side)
garrimbi spiderweb Ext silk thread
garriṉba land of spirits
garritjpa shellfish--edible Brown Baler Shell
garriwa turtle Flatback Turtle, Chelonia depressa
garriwaḻaŋaniŋ crab--used as bait Unicolour Dog Welk, Nassarius dorsatus (?)
gärriyak dry billabong (place where reed and waterlily leaves have dried out)
garrkany(') bird--brown falcon Chicken Hawk, Black Kite
garrkaraŋ avoidance relationship term used by a male gurruŋ when referring to his mother-in-law or by a man speaking of any old lady old, wrinkled, ready to be discarded
garrkarryun shake
garrkarrun sing with tapstick accompaniment
garrkarrun trot along (of dog)
garr'karryun float along (clouds), pass over (rain)
garrkatji saw (tool)
garrkuḻuk clean, pure
garrmala grand-aunt MMBW
garrmun taste, test, try
garrpaw' bird--owl Boobock, Mopoke, Winking (Barking) Owl
garrpi(')yun bind, bandage, tie (up) block (up) wrap (up)
garrpin bind, bandage, tie or coil (up) block (up)
garrthalala outstation
garrthan stick, get stuck, caught, bogged
garrthaṉdhaṉ tree--mangrove Acacia sublanata (?)
garrtjambal kangaroo male Antilopine Wallaroo, "Big Red", Macropus antilopines
gärrtji shellfish--not eaten Goose Barnacle, Lapas sp.
garrukal(') bird Blue-Winged Kookaburra, Dacelo leachii Kingfisher (generic), Ceyx and Halcyon spp.
garrukawu grass Spear Grass
garrumara octopus--coloured yellow and red
garrun say
gärruŋ bag--big, sack (for flour, potatoes, etc.) blanket
garrupu turtle shell
garrurru sail, sheet, flag sail rod
garrurru fish Beaked Coralfish
garrurruŋaniŋ fish Butterfly Fish, Chaetodon spp. Purple Sailfinned Tang, Zebrasoma veliferum Moorish Idol, Zanclus canescens
garrwaŋ plants which cause scratches, e.g., Asparagus racemosus
garrwar above, on top upriver, upcountry (away from the coast) any place too high to reach
garrwi'yun tie (up), bind
garrwiḏi spider (generic)
garrwili shellfish--edible Pinctada chemnitzii, P. maxima, P. sugillate
gaṯthun stick, get stuck or bogged get trapped, be caught (as fish on hook) choke on (something in throat)
gät playing card(s)
gätthun run (away), escape
gataḻa wallaby Longman's Rock Wallaby, Petrogale venustula
gatapaŋa buffalo
gataraŋay stingray--poisonous Blue-Spotted Stingray, Amphotistius kuhlii Rat-Tailed Ray (?)
gatarru Coconut, Cocus nucifera
gatiraŋay stingray--poisonous
gatitawuy morning star
gati'wuy sun
gätna carton
gätni garden
gaṯpurr wounded (by weapon)
gaṯtjarrarra'yun slide, glide
gaṯtjarrkthun slide, slip
gäṯtjini crab--white Spanner Crab (?)
gätugatu flour mixed with hot water
gätuwata flour cooked with hot water
gathan give
gathan hold, grasp, touch reach (for), take hold (of)
gathaŋ plane (carpenter's tool)
gathawuḏu house--native: "Mosquito House" (four-posted shelter which is raised off the ground)
gathayilŋa place in the bush near Gurrumuru
gathin clitoris
gathiŋaḻi(') fly Blowfly
gäthiyak rootfood
gäthu child, son, daughter (of father) C/m niece, nephew BC , daughter-in-law (of woman) great-grandparent (of same moiety) FFF,FMM,MFM,MMF
gathul(') mangrove tree (generic distinctive for their aerial root system) the mangrove area (as opposed to beach, bush, etc.)
gäthur(a) earlier (same day), just now, today, nowadays
gatjaḻ path, trail, road, way
gätjala dear, precious, highly valued
gatjambarri inside of house
gatjapa cassava Fijian plant--with edible roots
gatjarr'yun taste
gätjayamu child, son, daughter (of father)
gatji fruit Wild Plum Ext mango
gatji pools--small ones on beach behind receding tide
gätji(') Mangrove Worm--edible, Toredo sp.
gätjigatji poor, not much money
gätjil Mangrove Worms--small
gätjini crab--white
gatjiŋaniŋ shrub/bush with white flowers and tiny, juicy, edible black fruit Jungle Plum, Little Gooseberry Tree, Carallia brachiata
gatjipali(') sickness--sometime fatal, brought by the Macassans, boils with more than one head Ext ringworm
gätjirimi place near Daliwuy Bay
gatjirri sandfly
gatjpaḻ'yun turn aside, wander away, leave the path, stray
gatjpu'yun hope (for), look forward (to)
gatju Go away!, Off you go!
gäwaba fruit--yellow, ripe
gawal uncle MB , father-in-law second-cousin (male in third descending generation of opposite moiety) MBSC,SWB
gawaŋalkmirr(i) stingray--edible, dark-coloured back and light underneath, found in the mangroves and has the most harmful barbs of all stingrays (its fat), ba:kul considered grandfather or leader of this sp.
gawar'yun dawn
gäwara' sandhills, sandy ground, soft ground
gawarrka' uninhabited, isolated (place)
gawatha yam--long
gawatha season--the Wet (Jan-Mar, when there is lush growth, but food is not yet ready)
gawatjark tree--edible fruit Red Jungle Berry, Grey Boxwood, Yellow Tulip, Drypetes lasiogyna
gawaw'yun call out ("Go!, Go!"), "sing out"
gawiṉa fish Butterfish, Selenotoca multifasciata
gawinybiny water--fresh, from a spring
gawkaḻaŋ(u) stingray--big
gäwu muddy water, dirt that comes up with water in a fresh water spring or soak
gawuḏalpuḏal bird--small, black Spangled Drongo, Dicrurus hottentottus
gawuḏika leech
gawuḏu tree--from which string is made
gawukun bury, cover (up)
gawukaḻaŋ stingray--large with very long tail edible, good sweet flavour Blue-Spotted Ray (?)
gawuki yam leaves
gawuḻgawuḻ smoke--dense that blots out the sunlight
gawuluma paddle, row
gawulurr grass--its flat long leaves are pounded, mixed with water and drunk as medicine for diarrhoea, stomach ache, vomiting or fever also used for rubbing on the body (e.g., for headache) Barb-Wire Grass, Cymbopogon refracta
gawundatj tree Ficus sp.
gäwurr tree Red-Flowering Kurrajong
gawurrmuna clan
gawuthal crustacean freshwater Yabby sp.
gawutj fish Hussar, Lutjanus amabilis Sweetlip, Lethrinus chrysostomus, Yellow Sweetlip, L. nebulosus, Grass Sweetlip, L. fletus Lancer, Lethrinella nematacantha Collared Sea-Bream, Gymnocranius bitorquatus
gay' What!, Say it again Oh! expression of surprise
gäy' secretion from the eye, "sleep"
-gaya ALLative, LOCative
gaya'thama make (up, as a bed)
gayabak head
gayak mälk-m
gayam'purr tree Swamp Banksia
gayanh'tha layer of something spread out/down, sheet Ext blanket
gayarra coral
gayawak head
gayawaḻa sunset, coloured light at sundown
gayawarr tree/shrub
gayaya shellfish--edible Modialis pro s,c livis
gayi like that, in that manner
gayigayi core (of boil)
gayilpaḏa wind--northerly
gayit spear--shovel-nose blade (?)
gaykamaŋu surname
gaykarraŋ open (country, area), cleared clear(ing), a place free of rubbish
gaykarri bird cockatoo
gaykay uncle MB father-in-law WF
gayman spiderweb
gaymarani crocodile's bellybutton
gayŋa Continuous: is (still) doing
gayŋi sleep
gaypaḻ(') tree branches and leaves used in post-funeral cleansing ceremony hard wood used for making fighting sticks inner white bark used medicinally leaf mixed with salt water used as poultice for wounds Ear-Pod Wattle, Darwin Blackpod Wattle, Acacia auricul i,a
gaypuma neglect to give, act selfishly
gayu Come on!
gäyu tree (generic), wood, stick, twig
gayul secretly, quietly
gayulu'yun kick cadge
gayuŋgi paddle
gäyura mouth organ
gayuwaḻa paddle
gayuwaḻa sunset
gaywaŋi(') tree--pine Casuarina sp., "She-Oak"
gaywaraŋu white ash(es) Ext White Man, European
gäywarr jellyfish--poisonous Seawasp, Box Jellyfish (?)
gay'wu string bag, dillybag
gaywuṉdji islands off of Birany-birany
gay'yi Good job! expression of satisfaction or approval
ge key
giḏiwak stingray--small, with very sharp barbs on tail, not eaten Blue-Spotted Fantail Ray, Taeniura lymna
gidjigidjiyun tickle
gikawarra fire
gikina tooth
giḻyun lean over, slant
gela mälk-m
giḻaŋdhun climb
giḻapa doctor, medicine man
giḻatj glass glasses, spectacles
gilawun bird Friarbird(s)
giḻigiḻibunuma go around, steer clear (of), avoid, give a wide berth (to)
giḻigiḻk plant--small, found on hills
gilikarrama hug, embrace, cuddle nurse
giliŋ hook--fishing part of spear where spearhead is attached to shaft
gilipuma go around, steer clear (of), avoid, give a wide berth (to)
gilirri' clay--yellowish
gilitjirr(i) come close, approach, near
giḻitjirrk bag--string (made in same fashion as fishnets--older person's knowledge)
giliwukthun uncover (meat from ashes), unearth (mokuy from grave)
gilkilyun strange--be, disquieting
geluŋ melody--sweet feeling depressed
gimatata baking powder
gemuluwuy beach area
giṉgil waterlily root corm--immature
ginik scales (of fish)
-giniŋ greedy for, obsessed with
giṉiŋgarr navel, "belly button", umbilical cord part of fruit (where it is attached to tree) Ext button, switch, knob bullet, trigger winder keyhole, lock pipe-bowl
giniŋinyal crab--small, edible Blue Swimmer Crab, Portunus pelagicus Coral Crab, Charybdise cruciata Trawl Crab, Thalamita sima
gin'kin fish--large
ginŋin skin--of fish
genhdhirra'na go
ginybirk crab--small, edible
genybu tree Banksia papuana
ginyburrk flower of Banksia dentata the tree
genydja tree edible fruit Banyan, Strangler Fig, Ficus virens Sand Fig, F. henneana F. racemosa
ginydjirraŋ rudder, tiller, steering wheel
ginygaḻa' shortcut
giny'kiny fish Catfish Eel, Plotosus lineatus
giny'kinydjun walk (as crab, with arms out)
giŋ'marama poke
girba fruit Wild Passionfruit, Passiflora foetida
girilyun thicken (like custard)
giriŋ'kiriŋdhun cry continuously (of baby)
girirri' tree Ghost Gum, Eucalyptus papuana (and similar white gums)
giririrrk calico (or other fabric)
girirrirrk everlasting, well-known, excellent
girirrkirirryun cook (by spreading sand or ashes over food)
giritjirr(i) dance play copulate
girrgit tree Kurrajong, Brachychiton diversifolium
girri' things, goods, "gear", "stuff" clothes belongings, possessions, personal effects parts (of the body) utensils vehicles weapons (including items used by witch doctor)
girri' fruit of waterlily--reddish black Nymphaea sp.
girrikirri medicine--part of Stringybark mixed with boiling hot water and traditionally drunk only by women at specific times
girriŋgirriŋ(') jewelry, necklace, ornament grass (used in making necklaces)
girripipi shellfish--edible Placula placenta
girrirri'yun speak well of
girriwarr stick--for fighting or turtle hunting, club
girriwitji shellfish--edible Chameleon Nerite, Nerita chameleon Wavy Nerite, N. undata N. polita Littorina scabra
girrkirr ocean (far away from mainland) white foam (on water) (?)
girrŋirr skin--of fish
giṯ spear, pierce, stab
get skirt
giṯthun move (over), slide over, shift
giti-ḏaw'yun write, draw, paint
gitiḏiya(') fish--small garfish Short-Nosed Garfish, Hyporhamphus quoyi immature Long-Finned Garfish, Euleptorhamphus viridis (?) Fly-Specked Hardyhead, Craterocephalus stercusmuscarum
gitiraŋay stingray--poisonous
gitkit laugh(ter)
getkit bird--small white seagull Common Tern, Sterna hirundo
githi(-)githiyun tickle
gitjakara bark of Gum Tree sp.
gitjigitjiyun tickle
gitjin kitchen
gitjpa'yun dance (holding branches)
gitjpapuy bird
getju tobacco (especially old black strong variety), cigarette
giwun smile
giwit other side
giyalaram(a) strip (pandanus leaves for weaving, baskets, mats, etc.)
giyalkiyal whisper(ing), in a whisper
giyapara tree--big mangrove with aerial root system Rhyzophora stylosa
giyathawun shellfish--edible
giyawuḻ sunset (when sun is about to set)
-giyin- EMPHasis (on pronouns before -gala)
giyin call out special words at a ceremony
-gu GENitive: for (for women), Possessive (John's money), Benefactive (I gave the book to John), Infinitive (I want to go)
-guṮ FACTitive: make (make smaller, make better)
gu' Come on!, Come here!
go Come here!, Come on!
gubarku snake Taipan
gubaya possessions, gear, things
gubidji snake Freshwater Snake, Amphiesma mairii Macleay's Water Snake, Enhydris polyepis
gubidji turtle Loggerhead Turtle, Caretta caretta
gubiyun song of hammerhead shark
gubi'yun stroke (swimming action)
gubuḏu spear--large, bamboo
guḏaltji jellyfish--small
guḏam'bun fly away
guḏanyguma try very hard, persist
goḏarr' tomorrow (morning) morning (before midday)
guḏaṯpa tree Spear Bush
guḏi(') That's wrong!, Guess again...!, Opps! mistake made or correction intended
guḏi short, brief
guḏiḏi bird--small wading (generic) Plover(s), Pluvialis spp Godwit(s), Limosa spp Sandpiper(s), Calidris spp etc.
guḏiŋguḏiŋ woman, girl wife female Pl?
guḏirri tree--white flowers (Sept/Oct) Bunch-flowered Gum, Broad-leaved Carbeen, Eucalyptus confertiflora Smooth-Stemmed Bloodwood, Eucalyptus bleeseri
guḏirrkal root large edible root of Kapok Tree the tree itself (?)
goḏu inside (of something, especially a boat or canoe)
goḏu tree--mangrove, has a red flower and soft wood, place to find mangrove worms Red Mangrove, Brudiera parviflora
goḏu dry land, semi-desert
guḏurrku(') bird Brolga, Grus rubincundus
guḏutjurrk lizard--with long fine coloured stripes Skink
guḏuwurru wind--strong westerly
gudhaḻ'yun cook, roast (in oven)
gudhaykudhay constellation (smokey-looking) spirit
gudjak bitter, bad-tasting, salty
gudjark water
gudjarra' spear--stone
gudjuk mälk-m
gogu later, afterwards
gukthun bark at (of dog)
gukarri hunt, go hunting (for)
gokawu tree--mangrove with white flowers and a large orange-green fruit Sonneratia alba
gukkuk bird Bar-Shouldered Dove, Geopelia humeralis, Diamond Dove, G. cuneata
guku honey (especially without wax), beehive, "sugarbag" honeybee Ext sugar, syrup
guku tree Melastoma malabathricum
gukum(a) chase (away), harass
gukuwal fish Ring-Tailed Surgeon Fish, Acanthurus xanthopterus
-guḻ ALLative
gul stop
gul' Let's go!
gul'yun pound cycads Idm turn to another when one is no use
goḻ school
guḻa' faeces, excrement, small inedible balls found in beehive (baby bees in eggs; faeces and rubbish of bees)
guḻa' skin tree bark lips
gola syrup, treacle
gulaba coffee, tea Coolabah wine cask
gulaka(') yam (collective term but specific for: Long Yam, Dioscorea sativa var. elongata, Vigna radiata)
gulalay seed or inedible pod of mangrove trees, e.g., Bruguiera exaristata, Ceriops tagal, Rhizophora stylosa
gulamanda bird Dove sp.
gulaŋ blood menstruation Ḏimpolite in YMṈ
guḻaŋaŋaŋ' bird Grey-crowned Babbler
gulawu pearl
guḻawurr bird Jungle Fowl, Orange-Footed Scrubfowl, Megapodius reinwardt
guḻayŋu smouldering--trees (after grass fire has passed), --remains after a fire branch burning at one end only
golbin Goulburn Island
guḻga greedy
gulgulyun buzz (of bees) make a low humming noise
guḻguḻyun sink, drown set (of sun)
-guḻi ALLative
goli rudder steering wheel
guḻiban bird Red-collared Lorikeet
guḻibitjpitj bird--plover Oriental Plover, Charadrius veredus Mongolian Plover, C. mongolus
gulikayu bark of Stringybark--large strips used for canoes, shelters and death shroud
gulinybuma condemn, criticize (say something is no good)
gulirirri' wallaby adult male Sandy (Agile) Wallaby
gulirra place north of Yirrkala
guḻirriḻirri' tree--with sharp leaves Bossiae bossiaeoides
gulitj TRUE
gulitj college
guḻitji rectum (Rit) faeces, excrement
guḻitji tree? Haemodorum sp.
guḻiwan bird Red-collared Lorikeet
guḻiwitjpitj bird--sea gull Whimbrel
gulk cut (in two), slice, sever, snap cease (of wind)
gulkiya moon Ext month shellfish--not eaten
gulkiyaŋiniŋ snail--ground Xanthostemon sp. (?)
guḻkmiṉ snake Carpet Snake Children's Python Yellow Tree (?)
gulku fish Diamond-Scaled Mullet, Liza vaigiensis
guḻku(') many, much, several, lots
golku butt (of cigarette) fine, powdery ash
gulkuru empty (-handed)
guḻkuruŋu small
guḻŋgu'yun go away
gulŋiyi(rri) enter, be in(side)
golpa clan-nation
gulparuŋ' yam--long Vigna vexillata
gulpila lobster Tropical Rock Lobster
gulpu(') tree/shrub Tristania lactiflua
guḻpurr' three, a few
guḻthawaḻa shellfish--not eaten Mactra r,n eevei
gultjaminy tree--large, grows in fresh-water swamp
gultjarr grass Cart e,o nema spicatum (?)
gulu(') tree--edible root thorny stem wood used for carvings and canoes Cotton Tree, Kapok Tree, Bombax ceiba cotton wool (used as ceremonial decoration)
golu bird Heron sp.
guluḏumdhun make a deafening noise
guḻuk neck, throat
gulukulu' tree--with small leaves Paperbark, Melaleuca acacioides
guḻuk(-g)uḻukthun tell (on)
guḻuḻ'yun eat a diet of vegetables (including honey), but no meat be a vegetarian
golumala clan-nation
gulumirrtha bird Eastern Reef Egret, Egretta sacra
guḻumunyu tree/shrub--orange fruit used as medicine for ringworm or fish poison Long-berried shrub, Diospyros maritima
guḻun(') belly, stomach, womb palm (of hand), sole (of foot) Ext paddock billabong, lagoon, pool, waterhole, freshwater swamp
gulun'kulun tree Melaleuca acacioides
guluŋ doctor medicine
guḻuŋguḻkiya tadpole (generic) mosquito larvae
guluŋ'kuluŋ snake
guḻuŋgurr lizard Sandridge Goanna sp.
goluŋu rootfood--creeper found in the bush in "proper black soil country"
guluŋurrwa inactive, unable to walk
gulurirri wallaby--male
guḻutuk bird Peaceful Dove
guḻutj clothes
guḻuwitpit bird--nightbird
guḻuwitjpitj bird, sea gull Whimbrel
guluwukbuk stick--fighting
guluwukbuk bird--small, dark, found in jungles
guluykuluy bird--owl Tawny Frogmouth
gulwaṉi bulrush(es)
guḻwirri palm--with fan-type leaves and seeds like marbles which some say can be eaten Fan Palm, Livistona be n thamii "Cabbage Palm", Corypha elata
gulwitjpitj bird--sea Oyster-Eater
guḻwuḻyun sink, drown set (of sun)
goma empty (-handed), destitute (of or for) GEN naked
Gumana surname
gumanda leader, boss
gumaŋa egg
gumatj clan-nation (eastern Da)
gumbaḻ bird Emu, Dromaius novaehollandiae
gumbaṯa tree Paperbark sp.
gumbatha vine which grows up Paperbarks that can be cut, unwound from the tree and used for building shelters (or ?) large Paperbark sp. (?)
gumbu(') shrub--especially its small, soft, edible fruit White Berry Bush
gumbula surname
gombum(a) take (from), snatch (from a person, usually agressively) beg for
gomburr possessions (including land) of a dead person
gomili herb--especially its edible roots Clitoria australis (and/or?) Psoralea badocana
gumiṉḏa bird--curlew Beach Thick-Knee, Burhinus neglectus
gumin'ka shellfish Ark Shell(s), Arca corallicola, A. c ru,ur ciata, A. multivillosa
guminyiŋu bird "Whistling Duck", Grey Teal, Anas gibberifrons
gumiriny raw, unripe, uncooked
gomirr'mirr bird--mangrove, eats crabs
gomu(') crab--inedible Hermit Crab
gumukul tree--growing on beach
gomuḻu bird--sea, large White-necked Heron, Great-Billed Heron, Ardea sumatrana
gumuḻurru bird Curlew
gumurr chest, brisket Ext coast, shore, bank (of a large body of water) open country, land on the horizon
gumurr'yun meet, approach (Vin)
gomurr(-)waymi people of the northeast (Dhanbul)
gona maybe, possibly
goṉa ashamed, be shy
gunabibi see: GUNAPIPI
gunal speech, language
gunanydji trouble
guṉaŋ' night time, early in the morning while it is still dark
gunaŋa(') termite (or beetle ?)--its larvae were eaten in the past
gunapipi ceremony--sacred, fertility
gunariny kelp (purple/blue & white objects floating on water eaten by turtles)
guṉarrkuṉarr plant--small fern
guṉbala sugarbag (including beehive itself), wild honey Ext jam
guṉbilkpilk anthill--tall
guṉbirrtji clan-nation--extinct traditional owners of Galiwin'ku
gunbirrwaḻa spirit--inland
gunbukpuk weed--with big spiky seeds and yellow buttercup flower /or/ spiked vine with hard branches and white flowers Ext burr, prickle
guṉbuku' bird Parrot sp.
gunbur'mirr(i) leader(s) of Dhuwa ceremonies
guṉburrku midnight, in the middle of the night
guṉḏa stone, rock minerals, (unprocessed) precious stones hot stones (for cooking) Ext money, coins
goṉḏarra ḻikan name
gundawirwiryun change direction (of wind)
guṉḏirr(') anthill--short and reddish brown, termite mound antbed, hot stones (for roasting) Ext brown(ish)
guṉḏirrŋaniŋ ant--small brown
guṉḏirrŋaniŋ fish Estuarine Stonefish, Synanceja norrida Guam Scorpion Fish, Scorpaenodes guamensis
guṉḏit spear
gundupuma run Pl
gunduryun growl rumble, thunder
guṉḏurak airstrip
gondhu bird Heron sp.
gundhurru snake Olive Python, Liasis olivaceus sky
gundjak tree/shrub Freshwater Pandanus, especially its nut meat
gundjarraŋ spear--with hooks on one side, hook spear
guṉdjilk grass--sucked for its sweet liquid Heteropogon sp.
gundjirryirr jellyfish
gundjurru fat or liver of a Stingray sp.
gunga tree--sap used as ointment for itches white part inside leaves eaten straight or mixed with water as a medicine for mouth sores, sore throat, skin sores and boils leaves used for weaving material for mats, baskets, sails, etc. Pandanus yirrkalaensis
gungam(a) shut (in), block, obstruct protect, help out of a difficult spot
gungumiḏa snake Javan File Snake
guṉguṉ leaves of the Cycad Palm
gungunmarra sacred bag used for ceremonial purposes--especially its "arms"
gunguy'yun heavy--be
gunguy'kungu(y)yun move gently--back and forth or up and down
gunguyu burnt country, black scorched terrain after a bushfire
guṉi-djirr'yun go down
guṉinyarra' tree--with large red figs Ficus racemosa
guṉinyi bush--edible fruit root used for dyeing pandanus
guṉinymiya(') snake Carpet Snake (? or ?) Green Tree Snake
guninymurruwuy place at Cato River
guṉi-yirr'yun go down
gun'kim card game--a type of "gin rummy"
gun'kun palm tree and its edible stalks Kentia Palm, Northern Kentia, Gronophyllum ramsayi (and/or) Cut-Leaved Palm, Hydriastele wendlandiana
guṉmuk cloud
guṉmul season--the Wet (proper, with lush growth but food is not yet ready) Idm unflattering remark made in an argument
guṉŋarri shellfish--edible Brown Baler Shell
gunŋun' fish
gun'tjaminy bird
guṉuŋ cloud--rain
gunuŋbila snake Olive Python
gunuŋu(') snake--edible, said to cry like a man Black-Headed (Rock) Python
gunha'yun leave
gunharra'yun leave
gonhdham(a) get, fetch
gunhdhurru snake Olive Python
gunhirr tree--poisonous milky sap which makes skin itchy and eyes sore Milky Mangrove
gunhu(') father F , uncle FB Ext Reverend, Minister, Father
gunyamany mosquito sp. (or generic?)
gunyambi trouble (but not expressing it outwardly)
gunyan put
gunyaṉ crab Sand Crab (used as bait)
gunyaŋ'thun hiccough
gunydja'dhirri afraid, be frightened (of) GEN
gonydjiŋ key
gunydjirryirr jellyfish
gonydju beeswax
gunydjuḻu(') lizard--light-coloured gecko with spots, found in hollow trees Spotted Gecko gecko (generic)
gunydjuy wife, sister-in-law BW , brother-in-law WB
gonydjuy(') beeswax--hard, black, at bottom of hive (used as glue for fixing blades onto spears or knives or for putting feathers onto string bands)
gunygulu fish
gunygunymirri goosebumps, hair standing on end for cold
gonyil meat, shellfish, eggs (generic for all protein foods--associated with bringing a fresh taste to one's mouth after eating yams & rootfoods)
gunyinyi'yun hate, despise, feel revolted (by)
gunyipi rocks at Gunyaŋara and Galupa
gunyirri'nyirr crab's claw
guny'kulu fish Anchovy, Engraulis australis
gunyul(') charcoal (Rit) shade, dark area
-guŋ PRODuctive, Originator: given from someone, made by, provided by
goŋ hand, finger(s), claw Ext five
guŋaluŋ(') lizard Northern Blue-Tongue, Tiliqua scincoides intermedia
guŋan give
goŋ-banyguḻ spirit who causes the morning star to rise
guŋga'yun help (out), assist, work (with) ACC
goŋgatha tree and its edible fruit Black Berry Tree, Ixora klandorana
goŋiya(') crab--edible Hermit Crab, Coemobita sp.
guŋḻama spirit--inland
guŋman woman--pregnant or lactating (i.e., from pregnancy until she stops breast-feeding), any woman who has had a child middle-aged lady (30-40 years old)
guŋnharra alone, by oneself
goŋ(-)nyanyuk skillful (working with hands) expert in sacred knowledge
-guŋu PRODuctive, Originator: given from someone, made by, provided by
-guŋu KINship link
guŋuḻutju tortoise
guŋunŋu avoidance relationship term used by someone to refer to or address certain kin
guŋupin cloud
guŋupun cloud
guŋurru(') tree--white Gum, orange/red flowers edible seeds (Darwin) Woollybutt, Eucalyptus miniata
goŋ(-)waltjaṉ rainmaker
gupa nape, back of neck or head Ext source (of river) hill
gupanydji sail
gupapuyŋu clan-nation
gopi coffee, tea
gopu(') fish Blue Marlin, Makaira mazara Black Marlin, M. indica Leaping Bonito, Cybiosarda elegans Tuna (?)
gupulu body
gupumbu fish Barracuda (?)
gopunyuŋaniŋ shellfish--edible Nerite sp?
gupuru rootfood--grass-like plant growing along sand dunes with a peanut-sized root Cartonema spicatum
gurun sick--be
gur'yun incite, egg on (to do something violent or bad)
-gura LOCative, Comitative "with"
gora ashamed, be shy, embarrassed
gurak throat, roof of mouth voice-box, larynx Ext entrance "hallway" or inner entrance inside a tree into a beehive
guranydji-guranydji bird Mangrove Golden Whistler, Pachycephala melanura
guraŋguraŋ(') crow
gurarrkuma grow raise, rear, bring up
gurarriny'tjun go around
gurarri(tj)tjun go around
gurawatj(tj)un sit by oneself
guray gray, grey
gurbam messenger inviting people to Ŋulmarrk ceremony
gurini bird--brown
gurinyguriny green
guriŋgirrpa sea area at Yirrkala
guripa hook--fish
guritj tree--fan-palm with edible shoots Livistona loriphylla (?)
gurka'wuy Trial Bay
gur'kuryun push, incite, exert pressure on
gurtha fire (generic), log, firewood Ext matches, light(er) bullet
gurtha bird small Quail sp.
gurtjal(') tree Smooth-barked Bloodwood, Eucalyptus bleeseri, E. foelcheana
-guru ABLative
-guru- OBLique formative
gurubuk bird--small dove Geopelia sp.
gurudut bird Peaceful Dove, Geopelia placida
guruk grog, alcoholic beverage(s)
guruka Crocker Island
gurul'yun go and see (someone), head (for) ACC
gurumbirr road
gururrgururr bird Finch sp.
-guruy ASoCiative
-gurr PERgressive, PERlative: through the heart, along the beach, speak (in) a language
gorr width
gurra CONTinuous, PROGressive
gurrakawul grass Spear Grass
gurranhdhuḻa bird Pheasant Coucal, Centropus phasianinus
gorraŋ few, little, not much, not many cheap, inexpensive
gurraŋ(-)gurraŋ(') plant--fern (and/or) seaweed (?)
gurrawu hen, chook, domestic fowl
gurray put (down)
gurrbirkthun make a noise
gurrdjal sex organs--female (when swearing)
gurrdju' snake--Mangrove (generic), Water Snake(s)
gurri salt--dried onto skin
gurri(') crab--green, used for bait
gurriri short Sg
gurrka penis root (of tree)
gurrkaḻi plant Curcuma australasica
gurrkurr vein, artery root Ext physical strength
gurrkurryun tired--very (Rir) shake
gurrma(n) go rowing or paddling
gurrmar go rowing or paddling
gorrmarr many, lots big, large
gurrmirriŋu mythical beings like Yolŋu who lived on Gurriba and were exterminated by the Yolŋu (Yan-nhaŋu stories)
gurrmul boy--after circumcision (when wound has healed), young man Sg Ext batchelor
gurrmuḻu' lizard Blue-tongued Lizard
gorrmur(') hot, warm heat, warmth fever
gorrnha ancestor
gurrnyinyi bat
gurrŋan(') black, brown, dark black ashes, charcoal Ext shade sky
gurrŋiriny stingray
gurrpala knee(cap)
gurrpan call (someone) by a relationship term
gurrpulu plain--flood, flat dry country swampland where you can find game-birds and water-grass roots salt pan, tidal flat, clay pan (bare dry hard cracked ground)
gurrthi smart, intelligent
gurrthu' shade
gurrtji tree--no fruit and not used for anything
gurrtjiṯ bird Pied Butcherbird
gurrtjpi stingray--edible Numb Ray, Hypnos monopterygium
-gurru PERgressive, PERlative: through the heart, along the beach, speak (in) a language
gurru(-)ḻuḻnyin hole in ground rectum, anus
gurruḏupunbuy spirit--inland
gurrukabu grass Spear Grass
gurrukama carry (on head, shoulders, or back) wear (clothes) bear (a baby)
gurruku later (on)
gurrukurru clan
gurruḻan' mouth of river
gurruḻk baby, child young (of a species): calf, pup, kid, minnow (etc.)
gurrum' softly, gently, carefully
gorrum(a) hang, be aloft or perched (in or on something up high) be, exist (of waŋarr or wa:ŋa)
gurrumaṯtji bird Magpie Goose, Pied Goose, Anseranas semipalmata
gurrumba bird Magpie Goose, Pied Goose flock of geese
gurrumba-gurrumba surname Magpie Goose, Pied Goose
gurrumiḻŋ'thun turn over, flip over (while swimming, flying, etc.)
gurrumiya place inland from Garrkarrŋa
gurrumu(') fruit of Fig or Banyan tree Ficus sp.
gurrumu' Water Rat
gurrumuŋinyara banana
gurrumuru outstation
gurrunha carefully
gurrunhan put (down), lay down
gurrunhdhuḻa bird
gurruŋ avoidance relationship son-in-law (female ego), "poison cousin", second-cousin FZDC,MMBD,MMBS (Rit?) mother-in-law WM or her brother WMB
gurruŋgu'yun travel along
gurruŋgurr tree--large with lots of leaves and a long straight trunk soft white edible fruit like grapes
gurrupan give ACC or GEN on receiver lend OBL on receiver
gurrupiḻ turtle Short-necked Tortoise, Elseya dentata (?)
gurrupuruŋu Poor thing!
gurrur'yun take a (wide) detour (used especially when avoiding tabooed relatives, e.g., one's mother-in-law), avoid GEN
gurrurru'yun reflect, flash
gorrurru Pandanus points (needle-like)
gurruṯu relation(ship), kin(ship)
gurruthu' fish--large, saltwater Queensland Groper (?) Rock Cod (?)
gurrutjutju bird Kite (generic), Falcon, Hawk, e.g: Brown Falcon, Falco berigora - Australian Kestrel, Falco cenchroides - Whistling Kite, Haliastur sphenurus - Black Kite, Milvus migrans, etc.
gurruwiwi surname
gurruwuḏuk bird Butcherbird
gurruwul tree--tall, straight, found in brackish swamps and at the edge of billabongs Paperbark sp., Melaleuca cajaputi
gurruwul fish--similar to Barramundi
gurruwulupulu hole--deep, low ground (compared with the surrounding area), valley
gurrwanŋu tree Paperbark sp.
gurr'(-)warryun shoot
gurrwawu chook, hen, domestic fowl
gurrwili shellfish--edible
gurrwira spirits
gurrwirka (?) bird Eastern Curlew, Numenius madagascariensis
gurrwirkthun make a noise
gurrwuṉ' stick--for walking or fighting
gurryala river--freshwater going out to sea
gurryindi clan-nation
gut hit
guṯ chop
got court(room)
gutatu octopus
gutawuma fish Barramundi
guṯi(') short
guṯkuṯ angry signal for trouble
guṯkuṯ cone--male, of Cycad Palm
gutu Pandanus nut--inner, edible
gutu' tree--with edible nuts Terminalia grandiflora
guṯurk(-g)uṯurk bird Dove sp.
gutha(') brother or sister--younger first-cousin FBS
gotha tin, roofing iron, pliable iron or steel knife
gothan cook, roast (in ant bed or stone oven) cook (in general)
guthanhalkur avoidance relationship term used by someone when referring to your maralkur (grand-uncle) MMBS
guthanhur term used by someone when referring to your maternal grandmother and her siblings MM,MMB,MMZ
gutharr(') waist (at the side) Ext middle
gutharra grandchild (of same moiety) DC/f , grand-nephew ZDS , grand-niece ZDD
guthiliyawuy sunset, coloured light at sundown
guthin' rat
guthiŋaḻi' fly
guthirka bird Pied Oyster Catcher, Haematopus longirastris
guthitj honey in honeycomb
guthitjpuy wild honey
guthuŋ waterlily
gutjaminy stick--fighting
gutjan mälk-f
gutjark water, liquid, drink, juice, grog river, sea
gutjawutja tree--edible berry turns from dark green to pink Indian Mast, Polyalthia sp.
gutjikaŋ(') pocket
gutjiminy sores--itchy (Ext) measles
gotjiriŋu area upriver at Daliwuy Bay
gutji'yun language
gutjkama hunt with dogs, take (dogs) hunting
gutjkutjtjun carry, wear bear (baby) Pl
gutjparr(')yun throw (away)
gotju tobacco
gotjon mälk-f
guwadhurruŋu snack (items) of Cycad nuts
guwak bird Koel Cuckoo
guwal string, rope
guwaḻ waist (at the side) middle, halfway, part of the way (between two points)
guwaḻ'yun search (for), go looking for GEN
guwaḻuḻu bird Southern Stone Curlew, Bush Curlew
guwaman eat
guwaṉiny-guwaṉiny tree--large Paperbark, up which climber grows excellent bark for canoes, shelters and dillybags
guwaṉinywaṉiny Bandicoot sp.
guwarun cook, burn
guwarguwarmirri coloured (pure ochres mixed), discoloured (mats made of green pandanus)
guwarku snake Taipan
guwarr temporary, makeshift, ad hoc (e.g., borrowed item to be returned), not used in its proper function (e.g., using a spear to dig a hole or a shirt as a bag) snack (small parts of large animal, e.g., liver, gall bladder) to munch while more food is being fou
guwarrmuŋ(') crab--small, orange, with gloved claws, white chest & brown back, edible
guwarrtji turtle Hawksbill Turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata
guwaṯiṯi flower--white (of Stringybark)
guwatharam fight, hit, kill collect, gather (e.g., yams) roll (a cigarette)
guwatjman visit, go and visit, go up to (someone), arrive (at a place)
guwatjuru canoe
guwatjuru vine Lawyer Vine
guwi'yun swimming action song of hammerhead shark
guwiḻuŋ' bird Southern Stone Curlew, Bush Curlew
gowu I'll come later
guya fish (generic--does not include sharks or stingrays)
guyak bitter, bad-tasting, salty
goyal boil--large
guyaḻ'yun cook, roast (in stone oven)
guyamil clan
guyamirrilili clan-nation (western Da)
guyaŋa think (about), remember worry (about) (Rit) listen (to) ACC
guyaŋirr(i) think
guyarra(') spear--stone-headed stone knife
guyguyyun play (of musical instrument) shout, make sound (of fun)
goyi snake--aquatic Freshwater Snake
guyiŋarr cold
guyita Witchetty Grub (edible wood-boring beetle larvae)
guyiyi bird Wandering Whistling Duck, Dendrocygna arcuata White-Eyed Duck (?)
guykthun spit (out), spurt (water) make (someone or something) sacred or taboo by saying magic words apply paint to ACC
guykarri Porpoise
guykuy ant--small, black, harmless Meat Ant
guykuyyun call
goyma place at Cato River
guymaḻamurruwuy Ski Beach area (Gumatj-owned part of Nalila)
guyuguyu'yun rock baby to sleep
guyuk mälk-m
guyukam carry
guyula(') clan (western Dl)
guyula(') school of fish (in river near Wandawuy and Dhuruputjpi)
guyumul bird Heron sp.
guyupa die go out, become extinguished (of fire)
goyurr journey distance (covered in a journey) gait
guyuthulul hill
guyuwa stick--short, for digging shellfish bone of lower leg, fibula
guywulultja grub larvae of a sand beetle
guyuwuḻwuḻ shrub--edible berry
guywuyŋu snake King Brown, Western Brown Snake
Ṯi- FUT 3a-alone , BASE, FUT 3b-alone , 3b formative-other tenses
-i FUT
Ṯi-rri BASE
-ka ALLative, LOCative
-ka' DYADIC DUAL used on senior generation term
-kal(a) ALLative, LOCative: to, at, from, with (added to persons only)
-kalaŋa- OBLique stem formative: with ASC (-galaŋawuy) (added to persons only)
-kalaŋa KIN suffix referring to brother or sister via their children
-kalaŋu- OBLique stem formative: as with ABL (-galaŋuŋur(u)) (added to persons only)
-kam(a) BASE
-kaŋal(a) PAST1
-kaya ALLative, LOCative
-kiyin- EMPHasis (on pronouns before -gala)
-'ku PERgressive, PERlative: through the heart, along the beach, speak (in) a language
-ku GENitive: for (he went for wallaby), possessive (John's money), benefactive
-kuṮ FACTitive: make (make smaller, make better)
-kuḻ(i) ALLative
-kuluy OBLique-ERGative
-kuŋ(u) PRODuctive, Originator: given from someone, made by someone
-kuŋ(u) FUT
-kuŋu KINship link
-kura LOCative, Comitative "with"
-kuru ABLative
-kuru- OBLique formative
-kuruy ASoCiative
-kurr(u) PERgressive, PERlative: through the heart, along the beach, speak (in) a language
-kurru' PERgressive: along the river, through the grass, concerning a woman
-'kuyu PERgressive, PERlative: through the heart, along the beach, speak (in) a language
-ḻ ALLative
labalaba stupid, silly
labina few, some
ḻabit stick--used to tap didjeriddo in Ŋulmarrk ceremony
ḻagayin spear
ḻaka plant--water reed with edible corm
ḻakaram(a) talk, tell (on, about) ACC , speak (to) OBL , call (by name)
ḻakarriny water in a river turned dark after a rainstorm
ḻakirriŋ' like that, that sort of thing
ḻakḻak lizard Small Dragon Lizard, Two-lined Dragon (?)
ḻakḻak coloured sunset
ḻakpuma rip (flesh of turtle) from shell
ḻaḻa'yun rip
ḻa'ḻa axe--metal (modern)
ḻaḻakḻaḻak patch of rough skin
lalambarri copper, iron
lalaŋgutha copper, iron
ḻaḻawukthun peel (off), shed, scale (off) (in one's relations\' quarrels)
ḻaḻawupthun break (of blister)
ḻaḻaywarra shellfish /or/ crab (?)
läli lolly, candy
ḻalkal greedy
ḻaḻu fish Parrotfish spp, e.g., Blue Tusk Fish, Choerodon cyanodus Black-Spot Tusk Fish, C. schoenleinii
ḻäḻuk Pandanus fruit--acts as a mosquito repellent if dried out and put in the fire
läm lamb
lama spear--shovel-nosed
ḻama(-)ḻama bird
ḻamami(rri) clan-nation
ḻamarra stone--flat (on which nuts are pounded)
ḻambarr shoulder (blade) Ext middle of canoe or boat
ḻämbarr tree/shrub--with white flowers Verticordia sp.
lämbiny bat
lambirri long, tall
ḻämbitj fish bat (?)
ḻambu'yun dance (in a corroboree)
lämbu inside of a boat or car, hold (of ship)
ḻami hip, rump
ḻami Cycad nut(s)--after soaking
lamiḏalpuy Anindilyakwa, Groote Eylandt people
ḻamimaḏa woman--from the time she becomes pregnant to when her baby can crawl
lamurru cheap, reasonable (price)
ḻanan spear, strike with a spear
ḻanapu tree--wood used for making spear throwers Northern Cyprus Pine, Callitris intratropica
ḻanara(') wood chips (that fly off when wood is chopped)
ḻanda(') fish--freshwater perch Grunter (?)
länuŋ expert turtle hunter
lanhdhirra lamp, lantern
lanhdhuni arm
ḻanyarr egg
ḻanyba(-)ḻanyba(') fish--freshwater perch Grunter (?)
lanydjarrŋa rice
lanydjat conceited, vain
lanyiŋ clean, bright, polished
lanyipi rice
ḻaŋarr stick--used to pierce nasal septum hole in the nose
ḻaŋguṉa bird Pied Goose, Magpie Goose
läŋgurrk Witchetty Grub--ground-dwelling (found in billabong mud)
läŋgurrk crayfish
ḻaŋḻaŋ(') lizard--skinks and other small lizards (generic), e.g: Two-lined Dragon Carlia spp Ctenotus spp Sphenomorphus spp Hemidactylus spp.
ḻaŋ'ḻaŋdhun look around
ḻapthun open, come apart or loose
läpa timber
ḻapakarra lizard Spotted Tree Goanna, Varanus timorensis
ḻaparr bird dove, crested-pigeon (generic), e.g: Bronze Wing Pigeon, Phaps chalcoptera
laparra smooth
ḻapu fish Sergeant-Major, Abudefduf spp. Banded Humbug, Dascyllus aruanus
ḻapu shellfish Trochus sp., e.g., T. honleyana, T. lineatus
larryun drop, fall (off, down)
ḻarr' Go (on)!, Come here!, Let's go, Off they went
ḻarr'yun open up be(come) broken
ḻärr blade chips from spearhead of stone spear
ḻärr' splinter (of wood) wood--of Paperbark
ḻarrakara saliva, spittal white of egg
ḻarrakitj hollow tree or log
ḻarraṉi(') shrub, fruit--edible Bush Apple, "Wild Apple" Ext brown(ish) Idm halfcaste
ḻarraṉiya place near the river at Biranybirany
ḻarrariŋu porpoise
ḻarray'yun cook on open fire
ḻarrayiŋu porpoise
larraymin axe--stone
ḻarrbaw'wun spill (out)
ḻarr'ḻarryun cut up
ḻarrŋgay sun time Ext watch
ḻarrŋḻarrŋ skinny--very, emaciated
ḻarrpam inactive (e.g., just sitting all day)
ḻarrpan comet meteor, shooting star (?)
ḻarrtha(') mangrove (trees generic) Ceriops tagal
ḻarrum(a) search, look (for), seek GEN
ḻarrwa pipe--long, wooden
ḻarrwaŋ'thun spill, capsize, overflow
ḻarrwar trench (natural or man-made hollow in land) steep drop, cliff
ḻarrwaw'yun spill (out)
ḻät-yätjirri unable to walk because of pain
lätati paddles of dugout canoe
läti knife--big
lätuŋ sinker (for fishing line) items introduced by the Macassans, e.g., coins, lead, silver, tooth fillings, etc.
laturitj electric(ity)
ḻatha shellfish--edible Trochus Shell(s), Trochus obeliscus, T. maculatus
ḻathaŋaniŋ shellfish Cone Shell, Rizocanus mustelinus
ḻatjin(') Mangrove Worm (generic--can be eaten raw), Toredo sp.
ḻatjparr'yun spread out
ḻatjḻatj bird Northern Rosella, Platycercus venustus
latju good, nice, pleasant, delicious, beautiful smooth
ḻatjuwarr'yun scatter, disperse
ḻawun go hunting
ḻaw' get up and go Pl,in (Rit) come out of the ground -tr pick, lift up
ḻawaḻawa joker, clown, humorous person who talks and laughs a lot
läwarr grass--used like a mop when eating honey Alloteropsis semialata, Chrysopogon pallidus
ḻawarrkwarrk shark, stingray (generic)
ḻawayin spear
ḻawitji egg
ḻäwum(a) bite
ḻawutji(') egg
ḻayyun relax, feel easier, get relief
ḻäy temple, side of head or face edge shore
layarra sail
layipu timber
ḻayḻay yam flower
ḻayḻay busy, hard-working
ḻaynhawuy all homeland centres south of Port Bradshow (Yalaŋbara)
ḻaypa other side
laytju good, nice, smooth
-li ALLative
-li ERGative
-ḻi ALLative
-li' ALLative: for (kangaroo), to, toward, into, onto
li usually, always HABITUAL or repeated action
li we (two) Incl
ḻiyun hit (with the hand)
ḻidjiḻidji bird Finch (generic), Poephila spp. and Lonchura spp.
lika usually
ḻika rain
ḻikan elbow, joint Ext bay, inlet corner (of room, street) room new/crescent moon totemic group
ḻikarri liquid--small amount (paint, tar, oil, fat, petrol)
leku flag
-lil ALLative
ḻiḻ'yun crack (as crockery)
-lili ALLative
lili this way, hither (direction towards speaker)
ḻiḻigirr'yun make a rattling noise
ḻiḻirrtji tree--edible berries in clusters, turning from green (in Feb/Mar) to red when ripe Wild Cherry, Celtis philipensis
ḻil'ḻilmarama go around
lima we (all) Incl
limalanha us (all) Incl
limalaŋu us (all) Incl
ḻimbarra'yun carry on (one) shoulder
ḻimbik grinding stone--flat
limin squid
limurr(u) we (all) Pl, inclusive
limurrunha us (all) Pl, incl
limurruŋgala to us (all) Pl, incl
limurruŋgu our, all of ours Pl, incl
limurruwuy we ourselves Pl, incl
ḻindirriny bird Red-collared Lorikeet
ḻindirritj bird Red-collared Lorikeet, Trichoglossus rubritorquis
ḻingarr shrub/creeper or its edible root, purplish/black fruit is squeezed onto the skin as a treatment for ringworm
ḻinygu already, also when (that) was finished PAST
linyalanha us (two, not you) Dual, excl
linyalaŋgala to us (two, not you) Dual, excl
linyalaŋgu our(s), to us (two, not you) Dual, excl
ḻinydjiŋu fish Long Tom
linyu we (two, not you) Dual, excl
linyupi we ourselves (not you) Dual, excl
ḻiŋgu well then
leŋu drunk, intoxicated, staggering
lepa material
ḻipal fish Grunter, Spotted Bream
lipalipa canoe--dugout
ḻipun turtle's hind quarters
lipuṉdja Hammerhead Shark
ḻerr'yun sweep, uncover push lily roots aside
ḻirra tooth, teeth Ext thorn fish hook, blade or prong (of spear), needle-like points of Pandanus (Pandanus points)
ḻirraŋu short cut, separate way (Rit) Adv in front, ahead
ḻirrarawu turtle's stomach
ḻerrawa lizard Northern Blue-Tongue
ḻirrawar' bee--its hive is found lower on the tree Trigona sp.
ḻirrbuku brown(ish), dull red
ḻirrbuku ant Meat Ant
ḻirrga lizard Northern Blue-Tongue
ḻirrgi(') ashes--black, charcoal
ḻirriḻirri' shrub--with small, jagged leaves Grevillea pungens sometimes also applied to Bossiae bossiaeoides
ḻirrma'yun cook in ashes or covered up in sand
ḻirrmaŋa fish Salmon Catfish, Arius thalassina
ḻirrmuyun dance, act
ḻirrthan roast in ashes
ḻirrtjal algae (in pond), seaweed
ḻirrtji fire
ḻirrwa lizard Northern Blue-Tongue
ḻirrwi(') charcoal black ashes pupil (of the eye)
ḻeti Rock Wallaby
lithan dry (up), warm (by sun or fire)
ḻitja messy, untidy, all over the place
litjalanha us Dual, incl
litjalaŋgala to us Dual, incl
litjalaŋgu our(s) Dual, incl
ḻitjarrma tortoise
litji us (two), ours Dual, incl
ḻitji-ḻitji bird finch (generic)
ḻiwun blaze (of fire)
ḻiwun bowlegged--be
ḻiw' go around in surround, (en)circle tr
ḻiw' paddle, row (a canoe)
lewukaŋ island close to the mainland
ḻiyun hit
ḻiya head, crown
ḻiya-bandany fish Blue Catfish, Arius australis
ḻiyadhalinymirr clan-nation
ḻiyagalawumirr clan-nation (western Dl)
ḻiyagawumirr(i) clan-nation (western Dl)
ḻiyaman sing
ḻiyamunyan bird Sulphur-Crested Cockatoo
-lu ERGative, INSTrumental
ḻoyun wade (in the water)
ḻuduŋgu stingray--not eaten Shovel-Nosed Ray sp.
ḻudhuḻudhu shellfish--generic for shiny, attractive shells rounded like Cowries or with curled spikes, usually inedible Senectus squamosus Cypraea arabica, C. cylindrica Monodonta labio Turbo petholatus Ext Volkswagon
lok lock
ḻukthun come together, gather, collect
ḻuka eat, drink, consume, ingest take (medicine)
lukimap arrest, lock up
ḻuku foot, feet, toe(s) footprint Ext root (of tree) anchor wheel, tyre
ḻukunydja(') rich, wealthy (includes having many wives) plentiful, bountiful
ḻukuram(a) fish
ḻuḻawkun decompose (of carcass) lose skin, "skin up"
ḻuḻ'ḻuḻ tree--swamp Eucalypt
ḻuḻ'ḻuḻ crooked
ḻuḻ'marraŋu clan (now extinct)
ḻuḻnyin(') depression in ground, deep hole, very low ground (compared with the surrounding area)
ḻuḻtthun play (blow on) the didjeridoo
lulu coconut
ḻuḻu'yun drown
ḻoḻu fence, enclosure, yard (fenced area) wall fish trap (made by closing off a section of river or beach gaol, jail native hut--a two-level structure made with 4 poles and a roof (male stays on top "in attic", women and fire are below)
ḻuḻumarra cane grass Phragmites karka spear made from this cane
ḻuḻumurr led easily (into trouble)
ḻuḻupthun peel, shed, scale off
ḻuḻupunbuy place near Gurrumuru
ḻom hole, depression in ground, low ground
ḻumaḻuma cloud
lumanydjiŋa flag
ḻumbakthun fold, bend turn a corner suddenly be doubled-up
lumbi-lumbi tree/shrub
ḻumbuk bird Banded Fruit-Dove, Ptilinopus cinctus Bronze-wing Pigeon
ḻumḻum dip in ground--deep (like going across a dry creek bed)
ḻumurr'yun splash
lunbu hip
ḻunda fish
ḻundu friend, sweetheart
londuŋ tobacco--black (no longer in use)
ḻungu-ḻungu holes in the ground, potholes
ḻuni(') single, batchelor, spinster, without a "promised" spouse, unmarried, widow(er)
ḻunhdharra stingray--not eaten Shovel-Nosed Ray sp.
ḻony corner
ḻonydju side by side
ḻuŋ'thun gather (together), collect, attract
ḻuŋarri harpoon, harpoon shaft
ḻuŋarriny harpoon
ḻuŋgu spear (for turtle or dugong), harpoon (shaft)
ḻuŋgurrma north(-east) wind season when seas are calm and new growth starts, "Kingfish Time" (October-December)
ḻuŋiny pipe--for smoking (generic)
luŋurra spirit of Bremer Island
ḻupthun wash (up), bathe sink, submerge, become immersed in water
lopa poor
ḻurrthun split, cave in
ḻurr(')yun flow, run (of liquids) (Rit) stir up (water), make ripples in water catch fish in hand-held traps made from sticks and swished around in the water
ḻurr'yun clap
ḻurrdja'yun vomit
ḻurrgu'yun wash
lorri truck, lorry, automobile, car
ḻurrkun' three a few, some, a little, several (3 to 5)
ḻurr'ḻurryurruna horizon dawn
ḻurr'ḻurryun break down
ḻorrpu bird White Cockatoo
ḻorru pile of leaves
ḻurrya(') juice from the pounding of soaked Cycad nuts--used during such preparation for washing hands
ḻuthay snake--with spots, edible "Carpet Snake", Carpet Python, Morelia spilotes Children's Python, Liasis childreni
ḻuthuḻuthu(') shells--attractive, shiny, inedible
ḻutju kangaroo Big Red
ḻuwiya rootfood vine--root edible only after careful preparation involving cooking two or three times it is advisable not to chew too much when eating it Amorphophallus sp.
-m OPPosition or EMPHasis marker
-m(a) BASE
-ma OPPosition or EMPHasis marker
-ma ALLative
-maṮ CAUSative
ma PROGressive, Continuous: still (is doing)
ma' Go on!, Quick(ly)!, Get on with it!, O.K.
 so that, in order to
mabaḻki tree--with edible nuts Sterculia quadrifida
mabaḻpi yam--long
mäbubu wasp
mäbuga dream
mäbuwa dream
maḏaḏa leaves--used for ceremonial cleansing
maḏaḏupa grass--tall Sorghum spp.
maḏakun sing with tapsticks (but not didjeridoo) during ceremonies
maḏakani leaves of the Cycad Palm
maḏakarritj angry, violent, bad-tempered, "cheeky", touchy (person), ferocious, dangerous (animial), poisonous (snake)
maḏalatj turtle Short-necked Tortoise, Emydura australis
maḏarrpa clan-nation and language
maḏarrpa clan-nation (eastern Da)
maḏatja clan
mäḏawk bird Silver-crowned Friarbird
maḏayin(') sacred, secret, holy, taboo sacred object(s) an important sacred ceremony
maḏaymaḏay people of North-West Arnhem Land (who do not practise circumcision)
mäḏi lobster female (Tropical) Rock Lobster, Panulirus longipes femoristriga
maḏirri south (cool wind)
mäḏirriny bone
madhaḻuŋgu spear--barbed, hook spear
madharrak harmful substance
madharrpirra spear--hook
madjalaḏi' plant--with edible root swellings Cayratia trifolia
madjawurr spear--cane
mädjiŋ bitter, sour
mägaya peace, no trouble, cessation of hostilities ?praise
mak maybe, perhaps
maka thigh
mäka tree, wood
makadi water
makaḻ night, evening
makanbi house--native, built on water
makarr thigh, upper leg, lap back leg (of animals) root Ext part of a country
makarr'yun happy--be, pleased (about something)
makarraṯa ceremony--peace-making
makarrita' ceremony--peace-making
makarrwanhalmirri clan (eastern Da)
mäkaṯi water
makin ceremony--peace-making
makiny dry Ext lean, tasteless (meat), flat (tea with no sugar)
mäkiri(') ear, earhole, earwax
makmakthun wait
makpar tapsticks, clapsticks
maku maybe, perhaps
maku tree--very white Paperbark sp., used for burial platforms
makuḻmakuḻ container, dillybag--with square bottom
makuma estuary of Daliwuy Bay
makurr spear multi-pronged fish spear, Wessel Islands spear (made from Digging Stick Tree) with two barbed points wooden point for dugong harpoon spikes on wire spear
makuyuk tree--used medicinally Pandanus sp.
-mal ALLative
malthun accompany, go with, follow, walk behind GEN
mal'yun follow, imitate ACC
mäḻ' stone--flat grinding
-mala ALLative
mala group (of people), tribe, clan-nation, crowd, mob, set, bunch
mala Plural: together, taken as a group
maḻa track, path
maḻa scorpion
mala-barrtjaray clan
malagampurra head dress--feathers, used in Ŋulmarrk ceremony
maḻagatj ancestor--totemic, supernatural being (can be human, animal or monster)
mälak ant Green Tree Ant
mälakthun interrupt go crosswise
maḻaka dillybag--small, round (containing magic objects carried by a witchdoctor)
maḻakuy rainbow
maḻakuy snake--aquatic
maḻaḻ jellyfish--harmless
malalupa bird Torres Strait Pigeon, Nutmeg Pigeon
maḻamaḻ fly Blowfly
maḻamarr child--firstborn, eldest (in family or clan)
malany'tjurr bat--small
mäḻaŋ flat, smooth, calm
malaŋanba nut--inner seed of the cycad fruit
malarikurr' snake Tree Snake sp.
malarra stingray--not eaten Devil Ray, Manta alfredi
mäḻarra clan-nation
maḻarrk firestick
malarrka turtle--small, found in the sea
malati knife
malawiḏiwiḏi bird Brown Goshawk, Chickenhawk, Collared Sparrowhawk
malayak red colour in sky
maḻayarra' stick--used for stoking fire
maḻayukpa fat (animal)
malga' alone
mäḻga dillybag--long, made of string
malgama sire, beget (child, of a father)
malgarri ceremony and song of west Arnhemland
mali' shadow, reflection, image replacement Ext portrait picture, film, photo(graph), movie soul, person's spirit, ghost
mali'yun buy
maḻiki badly go wrong break down (of engine)
maliŋgur' tree--pine Casuarina
maliya fish Flathead(s), Platycephalus spp. Rough-Headed Dragonet, Callionymus limiceps Long-Tailed Dragonfish, Parapegasus natans
maliyambatj person who has the urge to get turtle
malk times
mälk subsection, "skin name", "skin group"
malka string--with (white or parrot) feathers, ceremonial "rope" used as a decoration
malkaṉa tooth--extracted
malkaṉa knife--small, pocket knife
malkarr bundle of spears or sticks
malki' firestick, firebrand smoke, cigarette
maḻkmaḻkun shine, be shiny
malkpitj sinew, vein
maḻku flying fox--large Black Fruit Bat, Pteropus alecto
malmuŋu fish Sheridan's Threadfin, Polydactylus sheridani
maḻŋ'thun appear, come out, come to light, happen, turn up, be born
malŋ'malŋbunuma aim (spear)
mälŋany rootfood--shaped like a carrot
malŋutj spirit, soul
mälpan make a fire
maḻpinybiny message stick--used in connection with Ŋulmarrk ceremony
malpura child--second-born (or in middle of family ?)
malthandi right in (of spear piercing, water flooding)
maltjaṉa(') two
maḻtjarr sharp
mäḻu(') father, daddy uncle FB term used by a sister to address her brother Ext Reverend, Minister, Father
mäḻuḻu shellfish--edible Ward's Volema, Volegalia wardiana
mäḻuŋ lump
maḻupanda lizards--small and skinks (generic)
maḻurrumbu eat
maḻuta fish Parrot Fish
malwan tree--with light straight branches good for making fish spears, wood used for pipes, carvings, and letter sticks good firewood inner bark used for medicinal purposes Timor-, Beach-, or Yellow-Hibiscus, Cotton Tree, Hibiscus tiliaceus sometimes confused w
malwanyga tide--very high, spring tide
malwarri ceremony and song of west Arnhemland
maḻway slanting
maḻwiya Emu, Dromaius novaehollandiae
maḻwiya'-ŋupanamirr(i) lizard--legless, worm-like snake or lizard (generic)
maḻwurrk rain
mam'thun stick (to), adhere
mäm'bun appear, come out, make an appearance manifest oneself come out of the bush into a camp
mama eyeball, pupil (and the white part of the eye ?) Ext? yolk (of egg)
mamaḻiŋgurr fruit or inedible seed of various mangrove trees
mamana red colour in sky
mamaṉbu(') tree--edible fruit and sap
mamatj nut--of Pandanus
mämbal shellfish Freshwater Mussel
mämbu' larvae (generic, e.g., ant eggs)
mamburuŋburuŋ brain
mämburr wrist
mämburrkmamburrk Milky Way light wispy clouds
mambuthuthu Witchetty Grub--as it emerges from cocoon
mäminawuy beach
mämu octopus
mamudjark water
mamudjirrk water
mamuḻ'yun put into mouth whole (i.e., not bite)
mamuŋuḻu seaweed grass sp.
mämurrŋ bone point (used for murdering enemies)
mamuthay water
mana unripe, uncooked, raw
mäṉa(') shark (generic for large adult man-eaters) shark sp. (?)
manalaŋiny slime on freshwater
maṉalk charcoal
mana-mana shade, shelter
mana'manaŋani vine--with pods of black tipped red berries
manaŋa theft
maṉaŋgayŋu surname
maṉaŋililik tree--small, with reddish fruits, grows on hills Euphorbiaceae (?)
manaŋunyaŋ tree--with large red rigs Ficus racemosa
manapan join (together), link, mix, combine (someone) in a fight, unite -Adv at the same time
manapiri together
manapirr(i) join
manarri snake--freshwater, non-poisonous
maṉatja tree Bloodwood
maṉatja' clan
maṉawiny avoidance relationship term used by a female GURRUŊ to address her MARALKUR or by ŊATHIWALKUR to address his female DHUMUNGUR "poison cousin"
maṉba porpoise Bottle-Nose Porpoise
mänba bird--dark brown seabird Pied Cormorant
manbarraparra crab--edible
manbiri fish--poisonous, with pointed tail Freshwater Eel-tailed Catfish
-maṉḏa Dual
maṉḏa they (two) Dual term used by someone to address two people
mäṉḏa Octopus
maṉḏakal(a) to them (two)
maṉḏaku their(s) (two)
maṉḏakuŋ(u) from them (two)
maṉḏan them (two) Dual
maṉḏanha them (two) Dual
maṉḏaŋ their(s), to them (two) Dual
maṉḏaŋgal(a) to them (two) Dual
maṉḏaŋgu their(s), to them (two) Dual
maṉḏaŋguŋ(u) from them (two) Dual
maṉḏaŋu them (two) object
maṉḏapa their(s), to them (two) Dual
maṉḏapal their(s), to them (two) Dual
maṉḏapi those two themselves
maṉḏarrŋ snake--freshwater
maṉḏatja clan
maṉḏatjmaṉḏatj crustacean: edible prawns and crayfish
mandawuy mud under water
maṉḏayala ceremony--circumcision
mandi Monday
mäṉḏi' gum--edible, growing on certain trees, especially Terminalia spp.
mandiḏakthun striped--be
mandimirr crocodile--saltwater
maṉḏirri gum, edible sap of Terminalia spp. (cooking it makes it softer and easier to eat), also used as a glue or caulk
maṉḏiyala' ceremony--circumcision
mandjarr' leaf branch with leaves
mandjawak knife--big (generic), slashing knife, sword
mandjikay sandfly--totem for Wangurri clan (not for everyday speech)
mandjirri tree Milkwood, Alstonia actinophylla
mandjirri sandfly
mangamanga spear--cane
mangaṯa sacred object (e.g., bone) used for cursing or casting an evil spell
manguli bamboo--used for spear bamboo spear
manguma collect
mani neck, front of neck Ext creek, river, channel (between islands)
maṉi'yun sulk, be dissatisfied or frustrated (usually because of desiring something one cannot have)
mäni money, cash
mäni granny MM
manikay song, music, singsong, ceremonial singing
manim'thun stick (to), adhere
manimani necklace
manimaniŋaniŋ shellfish--too small to have food inside
manimunak tree--with small yellow fruit
man'ka clay--white (or red and white mixed ?) hard ground
man'ku gum, edible sap of Terminalia spp. (cooking it makes it softer and easier to eat), also used as a glue or caulk
man'kuḻ throat
maṉmaṉ toadstool
maṉmaṉ no room
maṉmarr scab, flaky skin (in general)
maṉmunda yam--long
maṉmuŋa yam--long
mänŋu Get it!, Take it
man'pili bark of Paperbark or Stringybark--used as torch, tinder, or kindling
man'pul rodent Black-footed Tree Rat, Mesembriomys gouldii gouldii
man'ta scar
man'tjarr leaf (generic) mangrove leaves Ext tealeaves Idm cleansing ceremony for those who have had contact with a corpse
manukani axe blade which is worn down by use
manuŋgarri south (wind)
manuŋunya roots of Fig or Banyan--used to make string, bags, and armbands tree, Ficus virens, F. superba var. henneana
mänurr low tide
mänha water
manhdhak fresh (water)
manhdhakŋaniŋ fish
manhdhapiḏi(') shellfish--marine slug, not eaten but used as ear medicine it is boiled in water, squeezed and then the oil is poured in Nudibranch, Pleurobranchus punctata Soft Bodied Mollusk
mänhdhu bird
manhdhulpa beach
many taste, flavour
mäny trail (of snake, jet, something left behind)
mänyarr mangrove--white, leaves are green upperside and white underside place for Witchetty Grubs and wild honey wood is used specially for cooking Polynesian Arrowroot Grey Mangrove, Avicennia marina var. resinfera
manyarriŋ clan (Djinang)
mänybaḻi stingray--edible
manydjalpuyŋu clan (Djinba)
manydjarrarrŋa Daliwuy Bay
manydjarrka cloth, rag, dress material
-'manydji KINship Dyadic: denotes recriprocal relationship between two people
-'manydji\' Dual
manydjikay surname
manyguluma spirit
manymak good, fine, delicious, healthy, well, satisfactory
manymak and then well in narrative
maŋal' spear-thrower, woomera (generic)
mäŋal shellfish--edible Judas Ear Shell, Ellobium aurisjudae
maŋan cloud
maŋanbuy cloud(y)
maŋanhur(u) term used by someone when referring to your sister
mäŋaŋayun tired--be, exhausted
maŋgala stick--forked (in dancing ground)
maŋgalili(') clan-nation (eastern Da)
maŋgarra go, walk
maŋgarruṯa Goulburn Island
maŋgatharra Macassar (Ujung Pandang) and the Macassn people
maŋgi monkey
maŋgu(') blood sap (of tree)
mäŋgu tree and its fruit Mango
maŋgurra clan and language (Ritharrŋu, but many now speak Nunggubuyu)
maŋutji eye Ext seed, grain nut waterhole, well, soak deep hole (which goes straight down) torch, globe, headlight(s) bullet hook (for fishing or on end of woomera)
mapaḻki' tree--with edible nuts Sterculia quadrifida
mapaḻku tree
mapan put inside
mäpaṉ boil, pussy sore
mapandhurr tree Hibiscus tiliaceus
mäparrku(') boomerang (Rit) woman's fighting stick
mapay' sore, hole
mäpikani(') Cycad Palm, especially its nuts
mäpiḻi(') fish Mud Hopper, Periophthalmus koelreuteri Great Mud Hopper, Periophthalmodon schlosseri Bearded Goby, Scartelaos viridis
mapu(') egg (generic) yellow pollen balls (found in beehive) testes, testicals, "balls" ḎrudeṈ
mapuḏumun(') tree edible gum and fruit inner bark is used in treating diarrhoea, pimples and sores Wild Peach, Red Cement Tree, Terminalia carpentaria also T. ferdinandiana (?) (its sap), murrpun' (its fruits)
mapuḻkuma' rootfood--swamp plant with edible tubers Triglochin procera (?)
mapuṉ spider
mapuṉ harpoon spike--wooden
mar' knife (generic)
mar'yun poise(d) to throw
-maraṮ CAUSative or TRansitive verb former
maraka(') tree Water Tree
maralkur avoidance relationship grand-uncle MMBS , mother-in-law's brother WMB
maralmaral girl(s), young women without children
maram rib(s)
maramangunhawuy cleared (raked) area used by Dhuwa people
maramara meteor
maranhirri full--be (of container or a person after eating), be sated
maranhu food, snack, something to eat (to satisfy hunger)
maranydjalk fish--cartilaginous, stingray, shark (collective) flesh or meat of these
maraŋgum(a) pay back debt
maraŋu open, not sacred, secular, profane
marapalaŋ centipede (harmful)
marapiyal term used by someone when referring to your sister
mararrapan crocodile--saltwater
mararru professional hunter
marathi stingray
marathuwarr tree--mangrove with non-edible fruit, but Mangrove worms live in it
marawa(') fish Long-Finned Garfish, Long Tom, "Needle-Tooth"
marawat cf See: MARWAT
marawili surname pleasant shady place, favourite place (e.g., under a tree where anyone can sit)
marawurr spirit
marayarr mast (for sail)
mardhakal clothes things, possessions
mari fight, quarrel, trouble
märi grandmother--maternal MM , grand-uncle MMB (Yir) grandfather-paternal FF , grand-aunt FFZ
marika surname
marimi INTensive: very much (so)
märi'mu grandfather--paternal FF,FFB , grand-aunt FFZ
märi'muŋu grandfather--paternal FF
markala stingray--collective term for three species
marki(') crustacean--with pincers Fresh-Water Crayfish large Fresh-Water Prawn
markuŋ' axe--stone
markurri fish--like swordfish or marlin
marŋarr good place for anchorage
marŋgi know(ledgeable), aware, informed be able, can have a right (to) GEN
marpin shark tail
marpuy plant--with edible root portions Eleocharis sphacelata (?)
marthaŋa boat, ship (generic for non-canoe type seacraft)
martjun go, come Pl
marurrumburr cat
mar'wak come out the other side (of), in one side and out the other
marwanda tree/shrub--edible part(?)
marwar jellyfish--like marbles with hair prickles
marwat hair leaf, foliage Ext tealeaves
maryakal clothes, garments things, "gear"
marryun shake Ext dance
märr so that, in order to, then result
märr moderately, a bit, somewhat (like), relatively, quite light (colour)
märr strength, spiritual power, faith personality, nature, emotional state
marra hair (of head or on yams) leaf
marra place
marra Mara language and tribe
marrabal kangaroo--large
marradjiri pole--used in ceremony (not sacred)
marrakulu(') clan-nation (eastern Dl)
marrala stingray Manta Ray
marralpiṉḏi bullroarer--sacred
märram(a) get, fetch, bring, take, pick (up)
marramba(') adultery, wife-stealing, eloping
marraṉa' touchy
marraṉḏil shore--rocky, exposed by low tide (where it is good to collect fish and shellfish) right out (of tide)
marraŋadji' tree--small, found in hilly country
marraŋu clan-nation (western Dl)
marraŋu clan-nation (Djinang)
märratha diarrhoea
marrathulma men--young (16-25 years old)
marratja grandchild (of same moiety) SC/m,BSC , grandson SS , grand-daughter SD
marrawal kangaroo Antelopine Kangaroo
marrawaŋa make noise like that of a sail in the wind
marrawaṯa rat
marrawuruŋu stingray--young
marrayaryun feel (sensation), sense
marrayulpuyulpu small, unsteady, insecure (of car, boat, plane, etc.)
marrayumba tree
marrbiḻpiḻ grass Monochoria cyanea
marrdja'thirri hungry--be
marr-gaŋga moderately, somewhat
marrgugu rememberance of an unkindness for later retribution
marrgul'yun dizzy--be have a headache
marrikaḻa stingray--edible, black and white with spots jumps out of the water Bull Ray, Myliobatus australis (?) this or several other spp.
marrin dillybag, container--made of string, closely woven
marriṉ basket--watertight pandanus
marrirriny bird White Cockatoo
marritjkala stingray--not eaten Devil Ray, Manta Alfredi
marritjŋu grubs underground that eat rootfoods
märriyaŋ gun, rifle, shotgun
marrkala stingray--very large Devil Ray sp.
marrkap dear, beloved (expression of affection)
märrkitj safe, out of harm's way popular
marrkula surname
märrma' two
marrmarryun shake, shiver, tremble be pleased or happy
marrmiya area on Groote Eylandt
marrŋgam(a) wait
marrŋgitj doctor, Aboriginal healer, medicine man sorcerer (for healing not evil) clever, able
marrŋu(') possum--female, also generic Northern Brush-tail, Trichosurus arnhemensis
marrpaṉ turtle--large Flatback Turtle
marrpaṉŋaniŋ shellfish--edible White-Mouthed Nerite, Nerita ambicilla
marrparaŋ brave, fearless, courageous
märrpu' bird Sulphur-crested Cockatoo
marrputja string--plaited
marrputju string--plaited
marrpuy know
marrtji go, come, walk
marrtji happen, become (marker of continuous action)
marrtjkaḻa stingray
marrtjkurru fish--similar to swordfish or marlin
marrwala paddle, oar
marrwaḻk medicinal washing fluid made from tree bark
märrwarra wide, broad
marrwirriny' person responsible for care or protection (e.g., a close relative--a member of one's own family)
marrwuṉ tree--from which containers are made
marrwuṯu tree
marrya' hunger
märryaŋ gun, rifle, shotgun
mäṯ stick--with chewed or frayed end, used like a spoon for getting honey from beehives and eating it
maṯa'marama tie (up)
mäta pipe--long, wooden
mäṯala turtle
maṯaṉ belt--made from human hair
maṯaṉḏa(') collarbone
maṯaṯ belt--made from human hair
maṯiṉḏi' collarbone
maṯinydjarr(') bush with pink/mauve flowers signals oyster season Calytrix microphylia, C. microphylla (Rit) Scrubby Wattle (with long thin leaves and long flower spikes), Acacia sp.
maṯpuma know (a person), be acquainted with ACC
maṯpuna(') fish--lives in mangroves Bream, Acanthopagrus australis Pikey Bream, A. berda Black Bream, Hephaestus sp Long-Spined Snapper, Argyrops spinifer
mattjurr flying fox--small, brown (generic)
maṯun cold weather, "Winter"
matha tongue speech, words Ext language, dialect, pronunciation patrilineal social group flame (of fire)
mathaḻa' coast, beach areas saltwater
mäthamatha net dilly bag
matharam(a) peel (fruit), shell (nut), scale (fish)
mathayalma dolphin
mathin' paddle, oar
mathirra cave, overhanging rock, cliff, outcrop
matja algae
matjaka spear (generic)
matjakutu' Crayfish
matjambaḻi area in the Gulf
matjapalaŋu crocodile--saltwater
mätjarra Dhuwa people
matjarrwark string--worn around neck during mourning
matjiṉḏi turtle--juvenile Loggerhead
matjinydji(') bag--small, round (containing magic objects carried by a witchdoctor)
matjitj match(es)
matjka strings--used for body decoration
mäw wild honey
mäwarra broad, wide
mawaṯ spear--bamboo
mäwaya peace, no trouble, cessation of hostilities praise (?)
mawirrirr east wind
mäwiya poison
mäwuga dream
mawuka yam--long, tastes like sweet potato
mawula low tide
mawunu' yam--long
mawunydjil flag
mawuŋ clan and language
mäwuŋgi pods found on a beach and in the bush
mäwuru foam on seawater
mawurraki' tree Whistling Tree, "She-Oak"
mawurryambatj bird--seagull
mawuṯarri shrub/creeper--edible red fruit Termite Tree, Ganophyllum falcatum
mäwuwa dream
maya bottom
mayabutj tree Wattle sp., Acacia sp.
mayakaŋu east wind
mayali' meaning, sense
mayalil Torres Straits Islands
mayaltha season--within the Wet before bush foods are ready (around March)
mäyam take, get
mayaŋ(') neck, front of neck Ext creek, river (slow and wide) channel between islands
mayaṯili tree
mayawa(') lizard Frill-Neck
mayawuḻuk tree Hibiscus tiliaceus
mayawurr spear--cane
mayawurrthalwuy bush
mayayawuy lizard Frilled-Neck
maybuma tired (of doing)
mäyi granny MM
mayila unlucky
mayiliny paddle(s) for dugout canoe
maykarraṉ(') lightning Ext gecko lizard (which makes the lightning)
mayku tree--ritually important or significant Paperbark sp.
maymuḏikṯik heavy sleeper
maymuru surname
mäypa(') many, lots (of)
maypal shellfish, crustacean (prawn, crayfish, crabs), land snails, mangrove worms and grubs (generic--usually for edible varieties)
maypilama inside of boat
maypiny tree--wood used for making fighting & digging sticks, resin used as glue in spear-making leaves & branches used in wan'tjurr ceremony Ironwood, Erythropleum chlorostachyum
maypiny tree Deep Gold Wattle, Torulosa Wattle, Acacia torulosa
maypuma strike (an injured person or animal), finish off ACC
maypurrŋa big town, city Ext Darwin
maywarr snake Python sp.
may'yun flash (of lightning)
-mi EXIStential, Proprietive
-mi MUTual: RECiprocal (do to each other), REFLexive (do to self) BASE Ṯ FUT
miḏaṯthun whistle, squeak
miḏawarr season--just after the Wet when bush foods are ripe, animals are fat, seafoods plentiful, and the wind blows from the east
miḏiku(') rubbish bad, wrong
miḏiku sis(ter) term used by a brother to address his sister
miḏimiḏi snake--poisonous sea snake (generic), e.g: Stokes Sea Snake, Astrotia stoksii
miḏimiḏi rib
miḏitjin' medicine
miḏiyirrk west(ern), area west of Milingimbi
medjuku fish Butterfly Fish(es), Chaetodon spp Low-Finned Drummer, Kyphosus vaigiensis Blue Angelfish, Pomacanthus semicirculatus etc.
medjuru Witchetty Grub--full adult (newly hatched from pupa)
mikaṉ shoes, footwear
mekawu(') shellfish--edible (raw or cooked) Black-lipped Oyster
miku(') red--dark (ochre, used as paint)
milthun spy
miṉḏirri eye Ext well, soak, waterhole torch globe fish hook bullet hook (on end of woomera) tunnel at entrance to beehive seed, grain, nut (of female Cycad palm)
meṉḏuŋ hole or dent in the base of a spear shaft (into which the hook on the end of the spearthrower fits)
mindupu(nu)m(a) people from North-West Arnhem Land
mindji' tree Wild Cashew, Queensland Tar Tree, Semecarpus australiensis
mindjirri plant--tree? Anyema sanguineum
mindjirr'tjirr clan (Djinang, nearly extinct)
min(-)djuḻkun tree--with yellow flowers and a small flat round fruit, wood used for spear shafts Coastal Hibiscus, Beach Hibiscus, Indian Tulip Tree, Pacific Rosewood, Thespesia populnea sometimes applies to Hibiscus tiliaceus
minga' crab--with soft shells
mingamingawuy blaze (of fire), give off light
mengaṉawuy fish--reef catfish or butterfish "Diamond Fish"
miṉgi Firefly
miṉgi dragonfly, grasshopper, damselfly, praying mantis (generic) Ext helicopter, (aero)plane
meṉguma settlement
miṉimiṉipi leg--lower fin (fish) Ext barb (of spear), point, hook, sharp projection sense (of a story)
miṉiny plant--tree? Aegiceras corniculatum
miṉiny'parr shrub, fruit Opiliaceae family, e.g., Opilia amentacea and/or Cansjera leptostachya
miṉiŋgal shoulder blade
minirriŋa hailstone(s)
miṉitja white, light-coloured
miṉitjapuyŋu afternoon
minitjpa tree/shrub--and its fruit look like Paperbark or Ti-Tree
minmin(') milk
miṉmiṉ Mangrove Worm--small, found at GIYAPARA tree, must be cooked Toredo sp.
miṉŋal tear(s) (from crying)
minhdhala eyebrow(s)
minya' stick with hook on the end used for hooking Pandanus
minyaŋalaŋal stick--forked
minyapa eye
minyawuru embryo
minydjaḻpi mosquito (generic)
minydjirri show
menydjuṉ gall bladder, bile green, blue
minyga' within sight in front of
minyikarr betrothed, bestowed, one's "promised" mother-in-law (person who gives or promises a wife), wife, son-in-law or husband
minyikarr haste
minyiŋalaŋal spring (permanent source of fresh water)
minyiŋ'karr spirit
minyipirriwuy afternoon (3 - 5 p.m., towards evening)
minyirrminyirr tree--edible purple fruit
minyminy' bee and its honey--found in mangroves
miny'tji dislike, not want
miŋi aim (a gun or camera)
meŋiniyirri flash (lightning) shine (as a light in the distance), be shiny
miŋin'miŋin look back (over one's shoulder)
me'(-)ŋupan diarrhoea, "the runs"
meŋurr reporter (of events in general), scout, Ext spy
-mir eyelash(es)
mer' Firefly glowing algae (found in water)
miraŋ spy
mirarra eyelid
mirarrminawuy blind person who cannot see properly
mirawaŋa stick with a hook made by a broken-off branch
mirawurr nut--inner seed of the Cycad fruit
mirin shine brightly (of sun, rainbow)
miriŋu shellfish--long and sharp, edible
miriŋu blink (one's eyes)
miritji nervous, scared wild (as unbroken horse)
miriwurr current, strong/dangerous undertow whirlpool
mirmbitj hide, conceal
mirmir' forget
mirmur(') cicatrice, scar, welt man's chest scar
mirŋguy resent, be jealous (of) GEN
mel bag, net
miḻarrmiḻarr bag, net
milayŋa shellfish, oyster (generic)
milaypuma shellfish Rugate Ear Shell, Cassidula rugata
milbuṯtjuŋ trick, deceive, cheat
mel(-)djikay snake--aquatic Freshwater Snake
mildjiŋi snail--water
meḻi mend, sew
miligirriny snake Freshwater Snake
milikun tick (parasite on dogs, wallabies, etc.)
milika(') basket--narrow, closely woven (e.g., in which man carries firesticks)
miḻiḻ'miḻiḻ wounded, injured
meḻimiḻi snail--land/ground (generic): Xanthomelon janellei, X. pachystylum, X. spheroideum Xanthostemon spp. (Alt sp. name?)
miliṉḏirri mend, sew
miliŋinbi mat, layer, sheet, something soft to lie on for sleeping (e.g., grass or mattress)
miliny wallaby--young juvenile Agile Wallaby, Macropus agilis
milinyirr minnow (any very small freshwater fish)
miliŋinbilil Sandfly
milipa(') lizard--juvenile (?) Mangrove Monitor
miḻipi(') suspicious--be (of someone) GEN
milirrimbi vine--its leaves are used as armbands Flagellaria indica
militjpa eyebrow
miliwa Witchetty Grub pupa (in hard shell) or emerging from cocoon
miliyarr hunt (terrestrial game animals)
miliyin forget, leave out, omit, lose
melk shellfish Angular Ear Shell
miḻka(') fruit--withered of Wild Cashew
milkarri nit, louse egg(s)
milkayŋu flea, louse wart
milkinydjarr clan
milkirr tree--with huge thorns, good for shade, found in dense vegetation along river banks or near mangroves Cathormion umbellatum dense scrub, jungle
milkum(a) tree Ironwood digging stick (made of its wood)
milkuminy canoe (made from Strinybark)
milma bird Parrot sp., Northern Rosella (?)
milmarra leaves--special, where sugarbag is made
milmarr'marr herb--small Euphorbia sp.
milmilany tortoise--freshwater (generic) Northern Snake-Necked Tortoise, Chelodina rugosa
milminydjarrk layer (of leaves or material as when cooking), mat (something to lie or sleep on, as grass, sheet, mattress)
milminyina paint tar
milmitjpa skin
milnhiri tree--with edible red fruit Kurrajong
milnyaŋ'thun bag--biting
milnyinyiyun Sandfly
miḻŋ(')gun fish Garfish
milŋamurru eyebrow
melŋathu eggs of lice, nit
milŋiny' moon--new, crescent moon
mil'ŋu eyebrow
milŋurr nit, eggs of lice
milpuṉ(') stones--little, gravel, pebbles stony or rocky ground
milpunum(a) wire
mel(-)puṉumuṉ colour, design paint, colouring materials (clay, ochre) Ext bark painting, (any) painted design
miltjirr' wriggle, toss about, move (as in sleep when dreaming)
miltjuṉdjuṉ worry
milurrurr drunk
miḻwambi dance--with arms to side, forearms vertical, palms forward, and fingers curled down from the second joint (as evil spirits)
milwini keep for self, value (something) so highly (no one can borrow or get it)
milwu'milwu PRIVative
milwurum cave, overhanging rock cliff
milyin tail
mimil-mimil tree/shrub Digging Stick Tree, Pemphis acidula
mim'pu scar
miṉ'thun enemy soldier, warrior battle, war, armed conflict Ext germ
miṉaṉ bad, horrible, no good
minanbuy extreme(ly), do to extremes very much so , a great deal INTensive dark (colour)
miṉany ant--reddish, biting, lives in the ground
meṉawu(') PRIVative: without money, lacking, no feelings on nouns , Don't! on verbs
min(-)buma tree Yellow Hakea, Hakea arborescens
miṉḏalŋ good, straight, smooth
miṉḏalŋiny nose, beak, point
mindapum spots or light patches on skin (round, brownish-white can signal the start of leprosy)
miṉḏilŋ child--painted 2 or 3 weeks before his circumcision step-child, i.e., child(ren) of widow's second husband pale patches on the skin (which can signal the start of leprosy)
miṉḏirr raw, unripe, uncooked
meru(') creature which hatches from larvae
miryaŋ lower leg tail
-mirr EXIStential, Proprietive
-mirr(i) MUTual: RECiprocal (do to each other), REFLexive (do to self) BASE
-mirri EXIStential, Proprietive: full of, possessing, with, having Adj former--turns nouns or verbs into Adjectives
merri ceremonial head of seagull with string
-mirribulu Dual
mirriki chest Ext coast, shore, bank (of a large body of water)
mirriny beehive entrance
mirrinybal pieces of wood outside the beehive entrance
mirrinyu turtle, sea mammal (generic or collective term) meat from these
mirriri avoidance relationship of brother-sister (e.g., not calling sister by name not talking about sister in the presence of her brother) the behavioural rules for a man (where his sister or taboo things are concerned)
mirritjal' spirit of person after death, spirit-person
mirritjan massage, press, squeeze, knead
mirritji fish Barramundi, Lates calcarifer
mirritjin' medicine
mirriwa lizard Frilled Lizard, Frill-Neck
mirriya crab--small, edible, burrows under rocks in mid-tidal zones Horn-Eyed Ghost Crab, Ocypode ceratophthalma
merrku' twig, light/thin sticks (used as kindling)
mirrmirrŋa words spoken by the spirit cloud
mirrŋ bank of river or billabong
mirrŋatja outstation
merrpal' protein foods (generic for meat, fish, eggs, shellfish)
mirrwa' lizard Frilled Lizard
mirrwiḻi shy, ashamed
mirrwuṉ tail hind legs (of crocodile)
mit cut (up, in half)
met mate, friend brother-in-law
met meat
miṯan knowledgeable
mitawara(') shellfish Turban Shell, Turbo cinereus Subinella anguis
miṯiwirri(') possum Brush-tailed Possum Northern Quoll, Dasyurus hallucatus hallucutus
miṯmiṯ anteater Short-beaked echidna, Tachyglossus aculeatus acanthion
-miṯtji Plural
miṯtji group (of people), family, tribe, mob, crowd
metha(') chest Ext shore
mithili rocks in the middle of the river at GURKAWUY
mithirri stingray--edible "Thorny Stingray", Rough-skinned Ray, Gymnura australis Mangrove Ray, Rat-tailed Ray
mithirriŋaniŋ tree--thorny with white flowers leaves used as medicine (?) Prickly Tree, Zanthoxylon parviflora
mithuk dew, fog, mist spiderweb
mithurruŋu fish--saltwater (Jap) Salt Water Barramundi (Rit) small Fork-tailed Catfish
mitjala shellfish--sea egg, non-edible
mitjalaŋaniŋ shellfish Angular Ear Shell
metji tree Fan Palm, Sand Palm
mitjin mission, settlement
mitjinarri missionary (any) Christian
mitjindi turtle
mitjiyaŋ boat, ship ḎarchaicṈ any motorised vehicle
mitjpili enough, sufficient
metjpilkthun cover
mitjpurrkuḻa headband--made of string (for decoration)
mewal grandfather--maternal MMB , grandmother--maternal MM
mewana grass--used in basketmaking Cyperus conicus, C. javanicus string and basket made of this grass
miwatj east, easterner area of land east of Milingimbi
mewiny cut--finely, shredded
mewirri(') worm, hookworm maggot
mewirri'mirriyama betray, get someone in trouble by lying
miwukthun wag (tail) blow (wind)
mewuŋ buffalo (any) big animal
miwura throat
miyak taste, flavour first member of compounds only
miyaḻan calm sea
miyalaŋgitj north
miyalk woman, girl, lady wife female
miyaman sing
miyana fish Dart(s), Trachinotus blochi, T. russelli, T. bailloni
miyaŋa fish Diamond Fish, Monodactylus argenteus
miyapunu turtle (generic), sea mammal (collective for dugong, dolphin, porpoise, or whale) meat, flesh (of these)
miyarrka temple, side of face or head Ext edge
miyarrka homeland centres inland of Port Brandshow (Yalaŋbara)
miyatatawuy bird--large
miyatja calm sea
meyuru Witchetty Grub--full adult (that can fly, i.e. has hatched from larvae )
-mu of course!, didn't you know?
-mu your (true or blood relation)
moḏa(') boy--initiate after circumcision before wound is healed (ready)
muḏaḏa deaf and dumb
moḏi grandfather--paternal FF , grand-aunt FFZ , grandson SS , grand-daughter SD
moḏu' bait
muḏuḏu fly Blowfly
muḏuḏutjpi bird--black crane
muḏuḏutjpu bird White Fronted Heron
muḏuk battle, bad fight (only ceased when many are killed) war
muḏuk-muḏuk noise of people talking
muḏulul lump
muḏuthu turtle
muḏuwurr fish Sickle Fish, Drepane punctata
mudhandi anthill--used for cooking large animals hot stones
mudhuŋay(') food--plant or vegetable can be specificially applied to Cycad foodstuffs
mugugu fish Puffer Fish (generic)
muk be silent, quiet be dark, dim
muka Is that right?, Indeed!, Definitely! question or agreement indicator
mukali-bärra southwest
mukandi bird Green Winged Pigeon
mukarr hunter being (dreamtime whale-spirit who speared turtle & dugong with one shot), member of the Bararrŋu tribe and is sung about in Djambarpuyŋu songs
mukawaṯpuy dillybag
mokawu tortoise
mukmuk bird Boobock Owl, Barking Owl, Winking Owl, Tyto sp.
mukmuk louse--baby (newly hatched)
moku anus
mukul aunt(ie) FZ grand-aunt FMD mother-in-law (of a woman)
mukul avoidance relationship real or classificatory mother-in-law (of male) MBW,WM grand-aunt MMBD
mukuluk grass--flowers in the wet children use seeds to spear flies Spear Grass, Heteropogon contortus, Sorghum stipoideum
mukumbul bird--very small
moku-milŋiny'mirri snake--lives in billabongs "Rainbow Snake"
mokuy ghost, devil, evil spirit dead person, corpse Mantis (stick insect considered to be associated with devils)
mokuy sis(ter) term used by a brother to address his sister
mol black, dark-coloured
moḻ' snake Black Whip Snake
mula(') bird Pelican
mulalu sedge--with edible root portions Eleocharis dulcis sp.
muḻipiya wallaby female Agile Wallaby, Macropus agilis
muliyaŋarr rootfood--sticky or gooey, can be eaten raw if peeled first Abe l,r mochus moschatus var. tuberosus
muliyi mat--conical
molk ceremonial ground--taboo (sacred only during ceremony)
mulka(') hold, take hold of, touch, feel, grab reach, arrive at
mulka(') dry
mulkama hold, touch
mulkmulk shrub--edible tiny red fruit Big-Veined Jungle Shrub, Allophylus serratus (Rit) sedge--with edible root portions
molku shellfish part (of Mud Welk) which is inedible
mulkuru stranger(s), foreigner, other Aborigines Ext Gentile distant, foreign, strange
muḻkurr head
mulmariny blind--partially, myopic (cannot see properly)
mulmu grass, weed (generic for grass-like and herbaceous plants), Gramineae - monocotyledon family
muḻmuḻ foam, lather, froth, suds, bubbles
muḻmuḻ honey mixed with pollen balls
mul'mul black, dark(ened) black paint (now made from substances in flashlight batteries)
moḻ'ŋu snake (generic)
mulŋurr semen, sperm
muḻpiya' wallaby
molu grave sand nest (place where eggs lie buried)
moḻu vine--with lots of burrs Beach Caltrop, Tribulus cistoides
mulubu tree
molulu boy after circumcision before his wound has healed
muḻuḻu tree Mistletoe Tree Sandlewood (?)
muḻuḻu bird Little Pied Cormorant, Phalacrocorax melanoleucos
mulumbirrŋ bird Australian Pelican
muluna fig, fruit of Ficus spp.
muḻunda bird Woodswallow(s), Artamus spp: White-breasted, A. Leucorphynchus Masked W., A. personatus Blacked Woodswallow Little Woodswallow, etc.
mulunhara shark--young, edible (generic) Black-Tipped Shark, Carcharhinus spalla n zan i
muluŋ knife
mulupiṉḏa' tortoise--smelly freshwater
moḻutha net--fishnet (made of rope)
moma forget lose misunderstand
mumalkur avoidance relationship grand-aunt MMBW,MMMBD , mother-in-law's mother WMM
mum'muŋaniŋ Ladybird (beetle)
momu grandmother--paternal FM grand-aunt MFZ,FMZ
momuṉa snake Python
mo'muŋaniŋ Ladybird
muṉ shoulder
mon vagina
moṉa(') herb--small, with flat potato-like root Microstemma tuberosa
munaŋa White person, European
munatha(') ground, soil, sand, earth Ext world, Earth grave sugar
munbap fall down
munbi vine--rainforest climber with edible reddish fruits Malaisia scandens
muṉḏa sinew
mundu back--lower
muṉḏuka(') shellfish--edible Giant Gem Chiton
mundukuḻ(') snake--lives in billabongs "Rainbow Snake", Black-headed Python, Water Python, Liasis fuscus
mundul wind--strong
mundumundu snake Water Python
mundurr still, motionless
muṉḏurrk-muṉḏurrk tree River Mangrove, Aegiceras corniculatum
mundhurr present, gift (freely given)
mundjirr bird Blue-faced Honeyeater, Entomyzon cyanotis White-throated Honeyeater, Melithreptus albogularis
muṉga group of women
munguyun follow, pursue, track (down) ACC
mungurr tree Paperbark sp., Melaleuca nervosa container (made of paperbark), cooliman
mungurrawuy beach when the tide goes out at Biranybirany
muṉguy scraps, small pieces
munininy leaf
moṉitj secretly
munmun' grass--its soft white roots are dipped into honey and chewed Alloteropsis semialata
mun'puwa mildew old Cycad nuts (on ground--can be eaten if cooked in leaves or paperbark)
moṉuk salty, brackish, bitter, sour
muṉumbilil plankton, whale's food
muṉuŋgarri' bottle, (piece of) glass
munuŋgiritj surname yellow stone near Biranybirany
munuŋgurr surname largest fin on shark's back
moṉuŋu murderer, person responsible for killing or wounding another, cold-blooded killer
munurruŋ tribe
muṉuwurr fish Butterfish, Selenotoca multifasciata
munuymunuy tree/shrub--edible fruit young leaves boiled in fresh water and used as medicine for flu, coughs, diarrhoea and vomiting Paperbark, Melaleuca sp. (?)
munha night (as unit of time), dark(ness)
munhamurru tomorrow
munhaŋaniŋ(') lizard--gecko (generic) includes Velvet Gecko, Oedura sp. and a small one with yellow and black stripes
munyaṉ dead person
munyaŋ'thun nauseated, feel sick/like vomiting
munyarryun surname river at Dha:linybuy
monydjulŋu body skin
munydjutj tree and especially its fruit--green pea-like berry ready at the end of the dry season bark used as medicine for toothache or eyes leaves used as medicine for ringworm Green Plum, Wild Plum, Buchanania obovata
munyguma crush, keep close (so that it will not be lost or stolen) obliterate tread on
munyuk pus from a pimple or blackhead
munyuku clan-nation
munyukuluŋu termite
munyurr powderlike, in fine bits, soft in texture
muŋdhun drink (straight to mouth), stoop down to a pool
muŋmarama take over (a place)
muŋa ash(es), dust, dirt particles (in water) fireplace, fine hot ashes or sand (under which food is baked)
muŋapuwa shellfish--edible Fluted Giant Clam
muŋbunuma forever
muŋgurrpi dialect (Djinang)
muŋguypa sis(ter) term used by a brother to address his sister
muŋmuŋ dumb, silent Exp person of very few words (hardly speaks)
moŋ'muŋ insect--small (sucks blood of cattle, dogs)
muŋuḻu seaweed
muŋumuŋuyun dissolve (in one's mouth)
muŋuṉmuŋuṉ tree/shrub with white flowers found at the edge of the mangroves Barramundi can be found around it Club Mangrove, Aegilitis annulatum
muŋurraṉḏi' fish Spangled Perch
muŋuy' constantly, frequently, always
mupan tree--edible fruit and sap juice of bark used for diarrhoea Wild Peach, Red Cement Tree, Terminalia carpentaria
mupan' tree--used for firesticks Clerodendrum floribundum
muryun hot--be, feel feverish
muraŋay(') stick with bark smoothed off for putting in pierced nose (nasal septum)
murayana spirit that roams around
mori(') father, daddy uncle FB MB--if Y term used by a sister to address her brother Ext Reverend, Minister, Father
mur'muryun sick--be, ill
murnyaŋ' food--plant or vegetable (e.g., yams, fruits, nuts, honey i.e., sweet or starchy delicacies)
murŋgun pink(ish)
murthana sick
-muru PRIVative: not having
murukun(') rootfood--beach creeper with large purple flowers and edible root Ipomoea pes-ca r prae
muruminy shellfish--edible Gafrarium tumidum
muruthulu' yam--edible, growing on prostrate vine Ipomoea sp.
muruwirri rock--sacred car
murr' Good job! (expression of satisfaction)
murryun rumble, make a low rumbling noise (thunder, tractor in distance, didgeridoo) rev (of engine), roar growl (fire) burn vigorously
murr'yun selfish--be, angry
murraŋa ripe
murrarapu' crab small/juvenile Mud Crab (Rit) crayfish--in billabong
murratj sleep--very deep
murraymurray insect--large black beetle that lives by boring into trees and laying eggs in the wood there it grows, changes its skin which hardens, and then finally flies away --wasp?
murrbuk spear--barbed
murri'murri very old person (bald & blind)
murriyil bird Torresian Imperial Pigeon, Ducula spilorrhoa
murrkthun dislike, feel negative (towards)
murrka' fish Spangled Perch, Bream
morrkawu big
murrkay(') fatal(ly) (Rit) vigorous(ly), hard
murrkuluŋun termite, white ant, borer Ext germ, decay
murrnhuruŋ hole (in tooth or wood) tooth decay Ext termite, white ant, borer germ, decay
murrnya' shrub--small, with edible berries Emu Berry, Paper Berry, Grewia retusifolia
murrnyi' berry of Emu Berry shrub
murrŋaram old, wrinkled, ready to be discarded
murrŋga(') tree Wattle
murrŋiny spear--shovel-nose iron and steel people living in the east
murrpun' tree--especially its edible fruits Terminalia carpentariae
murrpunguḻa euro Rock Kangaroo, Macropus robustus
murrtjmurrtjthunara bruise
murrtjumun tree/shrub--edible fruit
-murru PERgressive, PERlative: through the heart, along the beach, speak (in) a language
morru' fish Small-Spotted Javelin, Pomadasys opercularis Yellow-Tailed Perch, Amphitherapon caudavittatus
murrukay big Sg
murruku' woomera (in myth)
murrumul orphan(ed)
morrumurru sad, depressed, discontented furious
murrunydjura White Man's country
murruŋ enough
murruŋun clan-nation (Djinaŋ)
murruŋun clan-nation
murrupal Kurrajong seeds--edible (ready Oct/Nov when seed pod turns brown must be removed carefully since the pods contain stinging hairs
murrurruŋguṉa' bird--aquatic Swamphen, Porphyrio porphyrio
murrutjinyara wailing
murrutjuwal bone
murruwun surname
murryil(') bird--dove Torres Strait Pigeon
muta back
mutamuta plant/grass--with small red berry, edible in May/June root is boiled up as a medicine for boils and foot sores Emu Berry, Paper Berry, Grewia retusifolia
mutika(') car, automobile, truck, motor vehicle
muṯiṯi(') scrub--thick, infested by devils or evil spirits
mutitj calm, peaceful
mutpuma gather (up), pack up (clothing), drive, herd (cattle)
muthak cloud-covered, overcast clouds that look like they will bring rain but don't
muthali(') bird Duck (generic): Pacific Black Duck, Anas superciliosa Wandering Whistling Duck, Grey Teal, Pink-Eared Duck, etc.
muthi' tree Fig
muthir(') tree--with sandpaperlike leaves small round black fruit eaten as a medicine for diarrhoea inner bark is soaked in water and drunk as a medicine for stomach ache Sandpaper Fig, Ficus opposita var. micracantha, F. aclileata, F. scobina
muthiyarra shell, oyster--large, with pearls, not eaten by Yolŋu turtle shell
mothum stone--lightweight, used in making stone ovens Limestone (?)
mothum' fish--small, freshwater
motj ancestor--totemic supernatural snake god which causes storms big storm, cyclone
motj rainbow
mutjpunum(a) build
mutju tree Coolibah, Eucalyptus microtheca
muwadhak clothes, things, loose possessions
muwaṉḏaŋ deaf and dumb
muwar fly Blowfly (?)
muwayak clothes material things
moy' particle: ḎCYṈ dirt, dust (Rit) last bit (of food, etc.)
muyaḻyun fly (as flag)
muyarriyarri tree
muykandi bird Green-winged Pigeon, Emerald Dove, Chalcophaps indica
muyku lazy, morose, slow to respond
muyukuya grass/rush--used wet when baking to keep moisture in and prevent vegetables from drying out Eleocaris spacelato, Cyperus angustatus
muyuŋu plant--its root used to poison fish Tephrosia singuliflora Neptunia gracilis
muyuŋuwuy grass
muyurru' nut of Pandanus
-n SEQuence (and then), IMMediacy (next), TEMPoral
-n ACCusative: object of an action
-N(a) BASE
-N(a) PAST1
-na SEQuence (and then), IMMediacy (next), TEMPoral: puts sentences together into a temporal or logical sequence of actions or events
-na ACCusative
-na PAST2
naḏiwuykuy ant Meat Ant
näga loincloth--triangular, g-string, waistcloth
nakaman wake up, rise
ṉakarraṉ emu spirit found near Numbulwar
ṉaku(') canoe (bark or dugout)
ṉäku(') bark of Stringbark (generic--used for shelters, canoes, bark-painting, death shroud, etc.)
naladharr clan
nalila quarry area on Gove Peninsula
ṉalkuma islands NE of Yirrkala quite far from the mainland
ṉalpa bird--sea Sooty Oyster-Catcher, Haematopus fuliginosus
ṉama' bird Jabiru
ṉamal stingray--not eaten
ṉamarriny stingray--not eaten
ṉämbarra(') tree--edible fruit leaves used medicinally Paperbark sp., Melaleuca leucadendron
nambatu birayti Thursday
naminapu rock at Djarrakpi
ṉamura shellfish--edible Oyster sp., Lopha folium
ṉan'thirri what-do?
ṉäṉ lame, crippled
ṉaṉarr' grass--found near water, used for necklaces Panicum sp. (?)
nanikiya island at Murrmurrŋa
nanikut goat
Naninyŋa place--big, European, Macassar
ṉanuŋguwa(') tree--used to make headbands or string large fat seed pod with four parts, inedible yellow berries inside (Northern) Kurrajong, Brachychiton diversifoli um,a
ṉanydja bird Pelican
ṉanydjak nose Ext face
ṉanydjawuy bird Pelican
ṉaŋ' run Sg flow (of water)
ṉaŋ'gun bathe, go into the water
ṉaŋmirri bird--sea Tern
ṉaŋa' bee Honeybee sp.
ṉäŋuḏi sick (person)
näp enough
napu we Pl, Excl
napulunha us Pl, Excl
napuluŋu our(s) Pl, Excl
ṉapuŋga(') middle, in between
napurr we (not you) Pl, excl
napurru we (not you) Pl, excl
napurrunha us Pl, excl, object
napurruŋgala to us Pl, excl
napurruŋgu our(s, not yours) Pl, excl
napurruwuy we ourselves (not you) Pl, excl
ṉarragal fish--large, freshwater Fork-tailed Catfish, Hexanematichythys sp.
ṉarraṉi shrub, fruit--edible, ripe in November, used as medicine for toothache, sores around mouth or on the tongue, cough and sore throat , Bush Apple, Red Love Apple, Red Wild Apple, Native Apple, Syzygium suborbicularis & Eugenia suborbicularis Ext brown(is
ṉarraṉi shellfish
ṉarrgi'ṉarrgi possum Sugar Glider, Petauries breviceps ariel
narritjin woomera
ṉarrŋ'gun snore
nätani jellyfish
natiti cloud
ṉatṉatthun boil, be boiling
natuyil coconut
ṉatjalma depths of the sea
natjayalma depths of the sea
nätjiŋa island north of Yirrkala
ṉawinika(') shellfish Black-lipped Oyster
näwukuku poison
ṉawulga blanket, sheet
nawungaḏa spirit (evil or good) that is the bearer of curses
nawuŋgurr place in the shade or out in the scrub for sitting
ṉayawuḏa fruit of Grey Mangrove tree--eaten by turtles /or/ small mangrove tree with cashew-like nuts which are cooked and left to soak overnight
nayip knife
naykalan spirit
ni eh!
ṉigar billabong, pond
ṉika which?, where (at)?
ṉikan'- which?
nika-nika fixer, mechanic
ṉikaṉuṉu second shot when spearing turtle
ṉikawu eastern end of Howard Island
ṉikiḏi bark of Stringybark--small pieces (used as mat, makeshift trays, or small paintings)
ṉilaṉila cicada
ṉilŋṉilŋ' spark(s)
ṉimbal trapped (e.g., animal in burrow)
nimiripin south wind
ṉim'pu back--lower, sacrem
ṉiṉ'thun hide (in fear), take refuge (e.g., tortoise in shell, animal in burrow)
ṉiṉḏa-barr'parryun crack, split (but not break)
ṉiṉḏaṉ' rootfood--young waterlily
ṉiṉi'yun fasten, tie up (canoe, etc.)
ṉi'ṉi leaning
ninikirri clan
niniku shellfish Thaid Shell(s), Thais kieneri, T. trigonus, Mancinella exhinata, M. armicera
ninimbitj hills at Yalaŋbara
ṉiṉim'thun sink down half drown
nininyŋu original, permanent, everlasting excellent
niniŋgurr water--fresh
ṉiṉ'thun compress, be pressed (in)
ṉeny billabong, freshwater pool (during Wet)
ṉinydjak nose, face Ext cape, point (of land)
ṉinydjiya tidal flat, salt pan, swampland (where game-birds and water-grass roots are found) flood plain bare area before the mangroves dry hard cracked ground, clay pan
ṉiŋan'- which?
ṉiŋ'ŋara where (at)?
nepa' reed Nypa fruticans house made of this reed
ṉepaḻ knee
ṉipiṉ red ochre
ṉipirri spear--hook, with barbs on both sides of shaft
nirun buzz (of insect)
ṉirrun rustle in the breeze (of leaves)
ṉirr'yun surprised--be, jump (in fright), be startled, shocked dodge
ṉerr wasp Mud-nest wasp, Eumenes sp.
ṉirriṉirri' insect--flying, said to buzz when green plums are ripe
ṉirriwan(') shellfish--small, sharp sometimes has a black pearl Oyster, Saccostrea tuberculata
nerrkaḏa fish
ṉirrŋṉirrŋ(') windpipe
nirrpurranydji head of a flag pole
ṉithuŋ tree Freshwater Mangrove, Barringtonia acutangula
newar swamp
ṉiwuḏa(') bee--fierce its sugarbag
-nu SEQuence, TEMPoral
ṉubul'yun shake (of grass, signalling presence of an animal)
ṉugupuma pester with requests
ṉoka' stone stone hill
ṉuku foot(print), toe(s)
ṉoli' walkabout
ṉumbulwara Rose River
ṉumburr lots, plenty (of people)
nona White Woman, Asian lady, non-Aboriginal woman
ṉoṉḏa shellfish--edible Telescope Mud Creeper
ṉoṉu elbow
ṉunhdhal soft
ṉuŋ waterlily fruit--large
ṉuŋ'gun assent, say yes
ṉuŋgaḻaḻurr tree--with edible white fruits Mallotus nesophilus
ṉuŋgalk cripple, spastick mongoloid
ṉuŋgaḻurr fish or insect (?)--silver fish (Garrtha)
ṉuŋgaṯmarama punish forbid
ṉuŋgululuk bird--small, seen around billabongs
nuŋgupuyŋu Rose River, Rose Island (Nunggubuyu area)
ṉoŋgurr elbow corner Ext bay, inlet crescent moon, new moon
nuŋuḏulbuy clan
ṉopuma pester with requests
ṉupuyŋa Coconut, Cocos nucifera
nuritj person--very old (bald & blind)
ṉorr'yun snore sound like a bullroarer
ṉurrku(') brain(s)
ṉorrŋ'thun snore sound like a bullroarer
ṉorrtj algae (on pond)
ṉurruṉurr bird Australian White Ibis
norrutj old man
ṉutjurru stone Ext coin
nuwaŋgala bird of the sea--not seen near land
ṉuwayak bark of Stringybark--softened and used for shelter or on which a corpse is laid and then wrapped up
-ŋ' my (true or blood relation) his (-relation)
-ŋa LOCative: at school, in the house, on the table, by the river
ŋa he, she
ŋä'thirri what-do?
ŋä'thirri do for a long time
ŋaḏan bark of Stringbark tree humpy made from Stringbark
ŋaḏaŋaṯ chestbone (hollow at bottom of chestbone)
ŋaḏarratjun speak angrily (sometimes involves swearing)
ŋaḏi(') discontent, dissatisfaction
ŋaḏuku rope--for dugong
ŋaḏup spy spying, secret activities in secret
ŋadhaŋay' food--vegetable (flour, corn, potatoes)
ŋadji'yun sing
ŋadjiyamu bird Sparrow Hawk
ŋäga'yun nod (from sleepiness) rock (boat)
ŋakun bark (of dog)
ŋäkan cover up
ŋäkanyu(') shellfish--edible Oyster sp., Anadara granosa
ŋakarraŋgarr seaweed
ŋäkirri cover
ŋakŋak bird female Sea-Eagle sp.
ŋakpanŋa tree--palm Ptychosperma elegans
-ŋal PAST1
ŋalthun ascend, go up (Rit) be new moon
ŋal'yun go up, climb, ascend, rise stand or be against
ŋäl saliva, spit(tal) white of egg fluid which lubricates joints
-ŋala PAST1
ŋala where (at)?
ŋaladharr clan
ŋalakan spirit
ŋalakaṉḏi cliff--yellow stone
ŋälal frog--especially small ground frogs found near water
ŋalalak bird--parrot Little Corella, Cacatua sanguinea
ŋalaliki turtle Green Turtle
ŋaḻamarra wallaby Net-tailed Wallaby, Onychogalea fraenata
ŋaḻamay(') shellfish--edible Brown Baler Shell
ŋalambal to(wards) which one?, where to?
ŋalambaṉa rock at Bulunmiri (north of Melville Bay)
ŋalambirra tree
ŋaḻamuŋ avoidance relationship term used by male GURRUŊ or MARALKUR to address each other "poison cousin"
ŋaḻan shell (of nut, tortoise, etc.)
ŋaḻanbirrtja bird Banded Plover
ŋalaṉḏarrawuy rain
ŋalaŋa where (at)?
ŋalaŋga' tree River Red Gum, River Whitebark, Eucalyptus camaldulensis (as at Ngukurr), E. alba or E. bigalerita (at Donydji)
ŋalaŋgawuy tree Whitebark
ŋalaŋuru where from? recent location
ŋalaŋuwuy where from? origin
ŋalapthun burn brightly, shine, flame, flare
ŋaḻapaḻ adult, important, "big" elder Sg
ŋalara scrubland, especially around springs
ŋaḻawiḻi shellfish--edible Brown Baler Shell
ŋalawitjan which way (going)?
ŋalawurr raincloud
ŋaḻbu' playing around
-'ŋali KINSHIP PROPRIETIVE: your (true or blood) relation
ŋali we (two), you and I Dual, incl
ŋäḻik bush wild berry--with thorns Solanum sp. (?)
ŋalima we (all) Incl
ŋalimalama our(s) Incl
ŋalimalanha us (all) Incl
ŋalimalaŋu us (all) Incl
ŋalimurru we (all) Pl, incl
ŋaḻindi moon Ext month
ŋaḻindi shellfish--not eaten Argo Paper Nautilus, Argonauta argo, Pearly Nautilus, Nautilus pompilius, Polynices didyma
ŋaliny you and me object of action
ŋalinyu we (two) Dual, excl
ŋalinyuny us two Dual, excl, object of action
ŋalinyuŋgu ours, for/of us two Dual, excl
ŋalinyuŋguḻ(i) to(wards) us (two) Dual, excl
ŋalinyuŋguŋ from/by us two Dual, excl
ŋalinyuŋgura with us two Dual, excl
ŋalinyuŋguru from us two Dual, excl
ŋalinyuŋgurumurru about us two Dual, excl
ŋalinyuŋguruy concerning us two Dual, excl
ŋäliŋali peaceful, troublefree (place)
ŋäliŋga bag--biting
ŋaliŋgu ours, of/for you and me
ŋaliŋguḻ(i) to(wards) you and me
ŋaliŋguŋ from/by you and me
ŋaliŋgura with you and me
ŋaliŋguru from you and me
ŋaliŋgurumurru about you and me
ŋaliŋguruy concerning you and me
ŋalipi we ourselves Dual, incl
ŋalitjanha us Pl, Incl, object of action
ŋalitjalaŋgu our(s) Dual, incl
ŋalitji us (two), ours Incl
ŋalka tooth, teeth
ŋalkabar' bee--honey, with nest in trees Trigona sp.
ŋalkaraŋ nut of Cycad--when it has lost its shell
ŋalkawar' bee--hive is found lower in the tree Honeybee sp.
ŋalma we (all) Pl, Incl
ŋalmaliny us all Pl, object of action
ŋalmaliŋgu ours, for/of all of us Pl, incl
ŋalmaliŋguḻ(i) to(wards) all of us Pl, incl
ŋalmaliŋguŋ from/by us all Pl, incl
ŋalmaliŋgura by/with all of us Pl, incl
ŋalmaliŋguru from all of us Pl, incl
ŋalmaliŋgurumurru about all of us Pl, incl
ŋalmaliŋguruy concerning all of us Pl, incl
ŋälŋaniŋ joint (of body)
ŋalparr(') phlegm, sputum chest cold, cough
ŋalthiri liver
ŋaḻu head of penis (part covered by foreskin)
ŋälutju tortoise
ŋaluwuruŋ ripe, cooked
ŋaḻwa' playing around promiscuity
ŋaḻwapthun burn
ŋäm'bun stunned--be (by chemical action of branches of certain trees)
ŋama- good
ŋama' mother, mum aunt MZ
ŋäma hear, listen (to)
ŋamakili good
ŋamakuli good, healthy, well
ŋamakurru good, healthy, well
ŋamala mother aunt MZ
ŋamanŋani yam, root food fruit
ŋamaŋamayun make
ŋama'ŋamathirri act, mime, dance
ŋamarama laugh
ŋamathama good--make, improve, fix, better prepare, ready Adv (do) properly
ŋambaŋambatj sickness
ŋambi knife (Rit) stone spear
ŋambiṉ'ŋambiṉ rootfood--large wild potato
ŋämin paint, spread
ŋamini breast, teat Ext milk
ŋamini lizard Snake Lizard, "Milk Snake", Lialis burtonii
ŋamu(') mother aunt MZ term used by someone when referring to your mother
ŋämuk ant Green (Tree) Ant
ŋamuma not recognise
ŋamun'kurr milk (generic)
ŋamupa sea anemone
ŋamuyu fish Sand Bass, Psammoperca waigiensis
ŋäṉ eyebrow
ŋaṉa honey(comb)
ŋaṉa' fruit of Marble Tree
ŋanak flesh, piece of meat, meat (as opposed to fat), muscle
ŋanakal uncle MB term used by someone when referring to your uncle
ŋanakuta excreta, "shit" ḎrudeṈ
ŋaṉaṉawa wife first cousin MBC term used by someone when referring to your GALAY
ŋaṉanyiŋaṉanyi' shrub--small, scrubby
ŋanapa husband, brother-in-law HB , sister-in-law HZ first cousin FZC term used by someone when referring to your DHUWAY
ŋanaparra' buffalo
ŋanapiliny us Pl, excl, object of action
ŋanapiliŋgu ours, for/of us Pl, excl
ŋanapiliŋguḻ(i) to(wards) us Pl, excl
ŋanapiliŋguŋ from/by us Pl, excl
ŋanapiliŋgura with us Pl, excl
ŋanapiliŋguru from us Pl, excl
ŋanapiliŋgurumurru about us Pl, excl
ŋanapiliŋguruy concerning us Pl, excl
ŋanapu we (but not you) Pl, excl
ŋanapulunha us Pl, excl
ŋanapuluŋu our(s) Pl, excl
ŋanapurr(u) we (but not you) Pl, excl
ŋanapurrumbal our(s) Pl, excl
ŋanapurrun us object, Pl, excl
ŋanapurrunha us object, Pl, excl
ŋanapurruŋ our(s) Pl, excl
ŋanapurruŋgal(a) to us Pl, excl
ŋanapurruŋgu our(s) Pl, excl
ŋanapurruŋguŋ(u) from us Pl, excl
ŋaṉarr crocodile--saltwater
ŋäṉarr tongue linguistic group, dialect, accent, pronunciation, language flame (of fire)
ŋäṉarrmarama peel, skin (fruit), shell (crab), scale (fish)
ŋanathu term used by someone when referring to your waku
ŋanda wind
ŋaṉḏamarama put against, lean against
ŋändama Cockatoo's cry
ŋäṉḏi mother M aunt MZ Ext wife of a Minister sister, nun
ŋandjur fish--freshwater Saratoga, Scleropages jardini (?)
ŋangalala settlement
ŋangaḻaḻa shark (generic for adults)
ŋanganharralil shark
ŋangawul none, nothing
ŋangi'yun dig
ŋani Right?, Do you agree? expresses uncertainty or an enquiry
ŋaṉi west
-ŋaniŋ culturally-perceived relationship
ŋänitj bee honey from this bee
ŋänitji alcoholic beverage, grog, strong drink
ŋaniyal mat--conical, flat
ŋäṉ'ka shellfish--edible useful as a spoon Faded Sunset Shell, Asaphis deflorata
ŋäṉ'ka-bakarra tree--edible green fruit Billygoat Plum, Green Plum, Terminalia ferdinandiana T. latipes, T. platypylla
ŋan'ku food or usual diet of birds or animals (e.g., Emu eats Fan Palm, Eagle eats fish, etc.)
ŋaṉmarra mat--conical (for sleeping)
ŋäṉuk ghost, evil spirit (of person after death)
ŋäṉuk sis(ter) term used by a brother to address his sister
ŋanul avoidance relationship term used by someone when referring to your MUKUL (-BA:PA or -RUMARU)
ŋanha which?, where?
ŋanhdhark dry (land) desert
ŋanhdharr'yun speak roughly, snap
ŋanhdharrkthirr(i) thirsty--be
ŋanya him, her object of action
ŋanyalanha us (two) Dual-Excl
ŋanyalaŋu our (two) Dual-Excl
-ŋanyaŋ' DIMinutive: little, small
ŋanya'ŋanya big Pl
ŋanybak armband--made of native string and feathers
ŋanydja but, or, though
ŋanydjaḻa'yun turn (a)round
ŋäŋ'thun ask (someone) ACC or GEN?
ŋaŋga hiding (in burrow)
ŋaŋ'ŋaŋdhun chase away
ŋapa back(bone), spine surface, top (of house, mountain) cover (of book)
ŋäpaki White person, European
ŋapaṉḏala place at Dhambalaya, north of Yirrkala
ŋapatjkuma hide, conceal, shield (guilty person)
ŋapipi uncle MB father-in-law (of man) great-grandson (third descending generation of opposite moiety) daughter-in-law's brother SWB second cousin MBSC
ŋapŋapthun cry, weep