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     Meaning:      pound

     An abbreviation of bal'yun is:      baḻ'paḻyun, barpuma

    Language information...

     Language notes:      Rit

     Clan:      Ritharrŋu,

     Always capitalise?      No

     Part of speech:      V-1-tr


     ID:      78

     source:      Zorc_1

     ratified:      Ratified

     Informant (see the bottom of this page for details):      JH

     Date last modified:      7/08/2002

     Date submitted:      30/06/1999

    List of abbreviations...

     Abr :       Abbreviation, an abbreviated form
     ABS :       Absolutive case (includes NOMinative and ACCusative with nouns)
     ACC :       ACCusative case (direct object of verb)
     Ad :       address term (used to call someone) See: Rf
     Adj :      Adjective or describing word (djarr'yunamirri dhäruk)
     Adv :      Adverb
     ALL :      Allative case (direction towards something or someone)
     Alt :      Alternate of (or) alternates with BABALA Alt: bawala
     ASC :      Associative case (about or concerning something or someone)
     B :      Both moieties, used by most or all (bukmak) speakers
     B :      Brother (in KINship terms)
     BAS :      Base or main form of a verb conjugation
     Bir :      Birrkili clan
     Bug :      Buginese
     Bur :      Burarra (language spoken at Maningrida, known by some Yolŋu)
     Cf :      Confer with; something related but not quite the same WALTJAṈ rain (noun) Cf: dharyun rain (verb)
     Ch :      Child language, way of speaking used to or by children
     Conj :      Conjunction, word used to link words or clauses together
     CY :      Coastal Yolŋu (includes Dhuwal, Dhuwala, Dhay'yi dialects)
     D :      Dhuwa moiety
     D1 :      First person deictic pronoun for this dialect D1 equals dhuwala
     Da :      Dhuwala('mirri) language group
     Dal :      Dhaḻwaŋu patrilect
     Daṯ :      Däṯiwuy patrilect
     DEIC :      Deictic or demonstrative pronoun (special words indicating place)
     DEIC-1 :      position close to first person (this, here near me)
     DEIC-1plus2position :      close to first & second person (this, that close to us)
     DEIC-2 :      position close to second person (that, there near you)
     DEIC-3 :      position by third person (that, there far away or yonder)
     Dh :      Dhaŋu('mi) language group
     Di :      Dhay'yi(mirr) language group
     Dj :      Djaŋu('mi) language group
     Dl :      Dhuwal('mirr) language group
     Dp :      Discourse particle
     Dual :      two people involved or implied
     Dy :      Yakuya (Dhiyakuy) language group (Ritharrŋu and Wägilak)
     E.g :      Example, for example
     Enc :      enclitic (a form that follows another word)
     ERG :      Ergative case (the doer or agent of a transitive verb), can also be used to mark INSTruments
     Excl :      Exclusive (does not include the person spoken to) See: Incl
     Exis :      Existential marker (-mi, -mirr, -mirri)
     Exp :      Expression or commonly used phrase (see also Idm)
     Ext :      Extension of meaning (to)
     f :      feminine, female, miyalk, baṯami, dhayka (as in Names or KIN)
     F :      Father in KINship terms
     FUT :      Future time; Future or Secondary form of verb
     Gal :      Gälpu patrilect
     Gan :      Ganalbiŋu or Ganhalpuyŋu patrilect
     GEN :      Genitive case (for or belonging to someone or something)
     Glm :      Golumala patrilect
     Glp :      Golpa patrilect (data so marked usually applies to Nh)
     Gum :      Gumatj patrilect
     Gup :      Gupapuyŋu patrilect
     H :      Husband (in KINship terms)
     Hyp :      Hyponym (belongs in the larger group of) BAḎARR Hyp: dharpa (BAḎARR is a kind of tree) BALPUḎU Hyp: gara (BALPUḎU is a kind of spear)
     Idm :      Idiom
     -in :      intransitive (verb)
     -inplus :      semitransitive (verb)
     Include :      Inclusive (does include the person spoken to) See: Excl
     INST :      Instrument used (marked by ERGative case)
     IR :      Irregular form class E.g: DHO (V-IR-tr)
     Jam :      Djambarrpuyŋu patrilect
     Jap :      Djapu patrilect
     Jb :      Djinba language group
     Jn :      Djinaŋ language group
     KIN :      KINship term
     Lgl :      Ḻiyagalawumirr patrilect
     Liy :      Ḻiyagawumirr patrilect
     LOC :      Locative case (place at, in or on); Location or place word
     m :      masculine, male, ḏirramu, ḏarramu (as in Names)
     M :      Mother in KINship terms or according to subsection rules
     Mad :      Maḏarrpa (-moṉuk) patrilect (a Dhuwaya dialect); Maḏarrpa (-dhuḏi) is usually included with Ritharrŋu in this dictionary
     Mal :      Malay
     Maŋ :      Maŋgalili patrilect
     Mar :      Marraŋu patrilect
     LŊG :      Luke Ŋalaŋala (Wutjara) Gaḻbayuŋga
     LWG :      Linda Wuḻamana Gaykamaŋu
     Mkr :       Macassarese, Macassan
     Mny :      Munyuku patrilect
     Mrk :      Marrakulu patrilect
     MUT :      MUTual (includes verbs that can be both RECiprocal and REFlexive)
     n :      noun (common or non-totemic)
     N :      name (personal or totemic)
     NEG :      Negative particle (e.g., no, not, don't)
     Nh :      Nhaŋu('mi) language group
     NY :      Northern Yolŋu (subgroup consisting of dhaŋu'mi, djaŋu'mi, e.g., Gålpu, Rirratjinŋu, Ŋaymil, Wangurri, and Warramiri)
     Ŋay :      Ŋaymil patrilect
     OBL :      Oblique case
     Opp :      Opposite meaning, an antonym BARRKU Opp: galki
     OPP :      OPPosition
     PAST :      Past time
     PAST1 :      Simple past or Tertiary form of verb
     PAST2 :      Distant past or Quarternary form of verb
     pc :      personal communication
     PER :      Pergressive (direction along or through something or someone)
     Pl :      Plural or group (mala) form
     PN :      Place Name
     PRES :      Present time
     PRO :      Pronoun (personal)
     PROD :      PRODuctive, Originator or Originative case on personal nouns & pronouns
     PRS :      Person, refers to persons or animates (not to things)v      Qp :      Question particle or question word
     Rec :      Reciprocal relationship of ŊÄṈḎI Rec: waku
     REC :      Reciprocal verb form (action done to one other) Cf: MUT, REF
     REF :      Reflexive verb form (action done to oneself) Cf: MUT, REC
     Rel :      Related to (Yolngu perceived relationship)
     Rep :      Replaced by (or) replaces
     Rir :      Rirratjiŋu patrilect
     Rit :      Ritharrŋu patrilect
     S :      Son (in KINship terms)
     S1 :      First choice spouse (according to subsection marriage rules)
     S2 :      Second choice spouse (according to subsection marriage rules)
     SEM :      SAL Semantics
     SEQ :      SEQuence, Immediate, or TEMPoral marker (-nha, -na)
     Sg :      Singular form
     song :      song form, generally limited to songs
     suf :      suffix, word-ending
     sup :      suppletive form (replaces a word that does not at all look related), e.g., NHE (plusGEN) equals NHUŊU, BA+ (V-ds) equals MÅRRAMA
     SY :      Southern Yolŋu (subgroup consisting of dhuwala'mirri, dhuwal'mirr, and yakuya, e.g. Gumatj, Gupapuyŋu, Djambarrpuyŋu,Ḻiyagawumirr, Ritharrŋu, Wagilak, etc.)
     Sym :      Symbol(ic) of
     Syn :      Synonym (same meaning)
     Tab :      Taboo relationship with BÄŊI (Name) Tab: båyŋu
     TIME :      Time word
     -tr :      transitive (verb)
     -trplus :      ditransitive (verb) (takes two objects)
     V- :      Verb (followed by GROUP NUMBER, 1 - 6,
     V-ds :      Discourse verb or ideophone
     VD :      final vowel-dropping patrilects (generally indicated by enclosing the dropped vowel in parentheses, e.g., ḏumurr(u), djälthirr(i), ḻakaram(angel))
     VP :      Verb particle (inflects with another verb)
     VR :      final vowel-retaining patrilects (see VD above)
     W :      wife (in KINship terms)
     Wag :      Wägilak patrilect
     Wan :      Wangurri patrilect
     War :      Warramiri patrilect
     Wob :      Wobulkarra
     Y :      Yirritja moiety
     YK :      Yirrkala Koine (also known as Dhuwaya or Baby Gumatj)
     Z :      Sister (in KINship terms)


     ADG :      Andrew Daymaŋu Gaykamaŋu
     AV :      Anita van der Wal
     AW :      Alan Walker See also R&W, WRF, W&R
     BDB :      B. Ḏipililŋa Bukulatjpi
     BL :      Beulah Lowe (1976)
     BMW :      Bobby Munurruŋ Wunuŋmurra
     BS :      Bernard Schebeck
     BW :      Bruce Waters
     DBG :      Dorothy Buyuminy Ganambarr
     DGB :      David Gurrumuruwuy Bukulatjpi
     DLY :      David Lalambarri Yunupiŋu
     DP :      David Pepperill (handwritten dictionary of Gälpu)
     DYM :      David Yaŋgarriny Munyarryun
     DZ :      David Zorc
     FM :      Frances Morphy (1983)
     FMG :      Fay Mätjarra Garrawurra
     FNM :      Florence Ŋalawurr (Munuŋgurr) McLaughlin
     GLM :      Gordon Lanyipi Marrkula
     HRW :      Harry Rrany'tjiŋ Wunuŋmurra
     JBG :      James Barripaŋ Gaṉḏaŋu
     JDG :      John Ḏamarrwura Gaykamaŋu
     JDW :      Jimmy Dhurpirri Waṉambi
     JDY :      Jimmy Dhopaŋ Yunupiŋu
     JG :      John Greatorex
     JGW :      John Gupaniny Wunuŋmurra
     JGY :      James Galarrwuy Yunupiŋu
     JH :      Jeffrey Heath (1980)
     JMG :      Jessie Murarrgirarrgi Gaykamaŋu
     JMR :      Joyce M. Ross, M.B.E.
     JR :      John Rudder (19 )
     JWD :      Joe Wulwul Dhamarraṉdji
     KGG :      Keith Garradhawal Garrawurra
     KLD :      Keith Lapuluŋ Dhamarraṉdji
     MC :      Michael Christie (1979), Gupapuyŋu-English Dictionary
     MC1 :      Michael Christie (1981), YOLŊU MATHA (Gupapuyŋu Grammar Lessons)
     MDY :      Murphy Dhalpirripa Yunupiŋu
     MRM :      Margaret Raymattja (Marika) Munuŋgiritj
     NWG :      Nancy Wamathana Gaykamaŋu
     PBG :      Paul Biyarranydjarrwuy Gumbula
     PGD :      Peter Goŋnyanyuk Dhamarraṉdji
     RA :      Robert Amery
     RLW :      Ronnie Ḻambitj Waṉambi
     RW :      Ray Wood
     R&W :      Joyce Ross & Alan Walker (1983) (See also: W&R, WRF)
     SD :      Steven Davis (19 )
     SYG :      Sherilyn Yalmay Gurruwiwi
     TBY :      Tom Bakamana Yunupiŋu
     TZ :      Tchekhoff & Zorc (1983)
     WdV :      Wilkinson, de Veere, et al (198 )
     W&R :      Alan Walker & Joyce Ross (1985) (See also: R&W)
     WRF :      Alan Walker, Joyce Ross & Mary Fletcher (edited manuscript)
     WZ :      Alan Walker & David Zorc (1981)